Publication: Output-Based Aid in Water : Lessons in Implementation from a Pilot in Paraguay
Paraguay's aguateros-small private water companies-form an important part of the water sector, serving about 9 percent of the total population (or about 17 percent of those with piped water supply). But until recently they operated only in urban areas, where water resources are abundant and they could choose customers based on their ability to pay the full costs of providing service. A new World Bank-funded initiative seeks to attract aguateros and construction firms active in the water sector to unserved rural areas and small towns by providing an outputbased aid subsidy, awarded through competitive bidding. The initiative is the first attempt anywhere to apply this approach to rural and smalltown water sector investment. This Note reviews the early lessons.
“Dress, Franz; Schwartz, Jordan; Bakalian, Alexander. 2004. Output-Based Aid in Water : Lessons in Implementation from a Pilot in Paraguay. © World Bank, Washington, DC. http://openknowledge.worldbank.org/entities/publication/70fea227-57b8-5d68-ba93-90db4d3131ff License: CC BY 3.0 IGO.”
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PublicationSmall Business Tax Regimes(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2016-02)Simplified tax regimes for micro and small enterprises in developing countries are intended to facilitate voluntary tax compliance. However, survey evidence suggests that small business taxation based on simplified bookkeeping or turnover is sometimes perceived as too complex for microenterprises in countries with high illiteracy levels. Very simple fixed tax regimes not requiring any books or records tend to be overly popular but prone to abuse. System reforms will require more precise tailoring of the simplified regimes to their target beneficiaries, coupled with strong compliance management to detect and deter abuse. The overall objective of simplified taxation for micro and small enterprises (MSEs) in developing countries is generally to facilitate voluntary tax compliance and remove obstacles in moving toward business formalization and growth.
PublicationCompetition and Poverty(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2016-04)A literature review shows competition policy reforms can deliver benefits for the poorest households and improve income distribution. A lack of competition in food markets hurts the poorest households the most. Competition in input markets and between buyers helps farmers and small businesses. And more competitive markets bolster job growth over the longer term. More research is needed, however, to better understand the impact of competition reforms and antitrust enforcement on poverty and shared prosperity.