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Publication(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2023-09-21)This study examines the expenditure by Caribbean Community (CARICOM) countries on the delivery of Essential Public Health Services (EPHS), in the context of the global response to COVID-19. In particular, the study focuses on financing arrangements enacted to ensure the predictability of funding and the sustainability in the level and flow of funds over the medium and long terms to carry out essential public health functions in Barbados, Grenada, Jamaica, and Trinidad and Tobago. The study also highlights the close, synergistic relationship between the Caribbean Public Health Agency (CARPHA) and its Member States.
Publication(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2023-09-21)The objective of this report is to examine the development of pharmacovigilance (PV) in Ghana and illustrate the role it plays in the health system, and more recently, during the COVID-19 emergency response. It concludes by offering some relevant lessons for building PV capacity in other low-and middle-income countries.
Publication(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2023-09-20)Countries in middle-income East Asia and the Pacific were already experiencing serious learning deficits prior to the COVID-19 pandemic. COVID-related school disruptions have only made things worse. Learning poverty -- defined as the percentage of 10-year-olds who cannot read and understand an age-appropriate text -- is as high as 90 percent in several countries. Several large Southeast Asian countries consistently perform well below expectations on adolescent learning assessments. This report examines key factors affecting student learning in the region, with emphasis on the central role of teachers and teaching quality. It also analyzes the role education technologies, which came into widespread use during the pandemic, and examines the political economy of education reform. The report presents recommendations on how countries can strengthen teaching to improve learning and, in doing so, can enhance productivity, growth, and future development in the region.
Publication(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2023-09-20)The path to low-carbon urban transport looks fundamentally different in developed and developing countries. Most cities in developing countries have not yet developed their land use and transportation infrastructure around cars, leaving a window of opportunity to chart a new path to low-carbon, efficient and inclusive urban transport. While developed countries may focus on retrofitting existing fleets (e.g., through electrification), developing countries can build their transport systems with a low-carbon approach at the core, allowing for more inclusive and climate-friendly growth in the future. With this approach, most of the changes that make urban transport greener also make cities more livable. Encouraging dense, compact, and mixed-use development (while limiting sprawl) and building effective public transport systems and safe pedestrian routes all reduce traffic and local pollution while increasing citizens’ ability to access jobs, health services and education. This report provides a framework that can help cities leverage these synergies and create transport systems that will support social and economic development outcomes while also reducing emissions.
Publication(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2023-09-19)To address the myriad challenges posed by global climate change, countries at all income levels have put in place a diverse set of policies over the past three decades. Many governments have already made significant progress in their efforts to decarbonize, creating a rich history of implementation experiences that provides important lessons for how to successfully advance climate policy goals in a variety of different economic, cultural, and political contexts. Despite this progress, the transition to a net zero future continues to face significant barriers, including the need for large investment, a lack of institutional capacity, and challenging political economy issues. ‘Reality Check: Lessons from 25 Policies Advancing a Low-Carbon Future’ identifies key policy approaches that countries are taking to decarbonize their economies. The report classifies policies into five categories: 1. Planning for a future with zero net emissions; 2. Getting the pricing and taxes right; 3. Facilitating and triggering transitions in key systems, such as energy and food; 4. Getting the finance flowing, particularly by incentivizing private sector investment; 5. Ensuring a just transition that protects the poor. ‘Reality Check: Lessons from 25 Policies Advancing a Low-Carbon Future’ fills a critical research gap by documenting low-carbon policy trends and providing a series of case studies across sectors and geographies. The 25 case studies furnish country contexts and policy details, examine results and impacts, and outline key takeaways and lessons learned for enabling further ambition in achieving emissions reductions. The report contributes to an evolving analytical agenda on how to reduce carbon emissions while achieving economic development and the strategic transition to a greener, more resilient, and more inclusive future.