The World Bank Open Knowledge Repository

The World Bank is the largest single source of development knowledge. The World Bank Open Knowledge Repository (OKR) is The World Bank’s official open access repository for its research outputs and knowledge products.


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Total publications: 37,092

Recently Added

  • Publication
    Increasing Gender Equality in Fragile, Conflict, and Violence Settings
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2024-04-17) World Bank
    Fragility, conflict, and violence (FCV) significantly impact women and girls, exacerbating gender-based violence and limiting access to rights and services due to weakened institutions. Positive changes can emerge from crises, providing opportunities to reshape social norms and empower women. Achieving gender equality in these settings requires tailored approaches that consider local dynamics and involve influential non-state actors. The World Bank Group's experience suggests that partnerships, strengthened laws, and inclusive policies can enhance outcomes. Sustainable progress demands increased investment, innovation in data collection, and collaboration among governments, NGOs, and the private sector to address these complex challenges effectively.
  • Publication
    ESMAP Technical Report - Energy Subsidy Reform in Action: Political Economy Analysis and Communications for Energy Subsidy Reform - Approaches and Insights from Recent Technical Assistance
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2024-04-17) Moerenhout, Tom; Gencer, Defne; Arizu, Beatriz; Lee, Min A; Braun, Hannah; Gencer, Defne
    This report takes stock of political economy analysis (PEA) and communications inthe context of country-specific technical assistance activities supporting energysubsidy reforms that benefited from financial and technical support from ESMAP.Initiated as part of a retrospective assessment of technical assistance activities that ESRFhas supported since its establishment, this report reviews designs and implementationapproaches of World Bank–executed technical assistance activities. The assessment isbased on a qualitative review of key outputs of select PEA and communications supportactivities carried out in the context of country grants. The report documents differentapproaches, assesses activity designs and outputs, and attempts to draw insights fromemerging practices and substantive findings, along with making recommendations forfuture work. Key questions include, What practical approaches are used for providing technical and advisory support to developing-country governments for political economy assessmentsand communications strategies in support of energy subsidy reform efforts What good practiceexamples are available for assessing political economy dimensions, using them to inform reformdesigns by addressing key impacts and concerns identified and conducting meaningful stakeholder engagement to explain the reform and build support
  • Publication
    Burkina Faso - Agro-Silvo-Pastoral Sector Public Expenditure Review
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2024-04-16) World Bank
    In Burkina Faso, agriculture is the primary source of employment for the population, but it faces challenges due to low productivity and poor water management, exacerbated by the adverse effects of climate change. Increases in grain production have been achieved through the expansion of cultivated areas, thereby putting significant pressure on natural resources. At the policy level, agriculture has been identified as a priority sector for the transformation of Burkina Faso’s economic structure as outlined in the Second National Plan for Economic and Social Development (PNDES II). At the institutional and organizational level, the implementation of the program budgeting since 2017, shifting from funds-based budgeting to outcome-based budgeting, aims at enhancing the efficiency of public expenditure by focusing on outcomes. The structure of the program budgeting includes more than twenty distinct budget programs. This large number of budget programs poses challenges in terms of coordination, optimization, and capitalization of public action in favor of the agricultural sector. In this context, the World Bank undertakes this third agriculture public expenditure review to help the Government of Burkina Faso produce evidence on the structure of public expenditures. In addition to the classic analysis of the efficiency of expenditure allocation, the efficiency of budget execution, as well as coordination, monitoring and evaluation, and accountability mechanisms in the sector, the report will examine the incidence and impact of public expenditures by analyzing four specific cases: (i) input subsidies, (ii) hydro-agricultural facilities and irrigation; (iii) agricultural finance, and (iv) expenditures allocated to forestry and natural resources.
  • Publication
    The Great Reversal: Prospects, Risks, and Policies in International Development Association (IDA) Countries
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2024-04-15) Chrimes, Tommy; Gootjes, Bram; Kose, M. Ayhan; Wheeler, Collette
    The 75 economies eligible for low-interest loans and grants from the World Bank’s International Development Association (IDA) had made notable progress against some important development objectives over the first two decades of this century. Despite this, on the eve of the COVID-19 pandemic, significant development gaps persisted, income convergence with advanced economies was slowing, and some vulnerabilities were rising. The shock of the pandemic and subsequent overlapping crises has exacerbated the challenges facing these economies and led to a reversal in development: over 2020-24, per capita incomes in half of IDA countries—the largest share since the start of this century—have been growing more slowly than those of wealthy economies. One out of three IDA countries is poorer than it was on the eve of the pandemic. Poverty remains stubbornly high, hunger has surged, and, amid fiscal constraints and rising investment needs, the development outlook could take an even bleaker turn—especially if weak growth prospects persist. IDA countries have several important demographic and resource advantages that could—if leveraged effectively—help close development gaps. Reaping the benefits of their advantages and meeting investment needs will require them to undertake comprehensive policy measures to bolster fiscal and monetary frameworks, enhance human capital development, and improve the quality of institutions. These policies should be complemented with significant and consistent international financial support as well as strong cooperation on global policy issues.
  • Publication
    MENA Economic Update, April 2024: Conflict and Debt in the Middle East and North Africa
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2024-04-15) Gatti, Roberta; Bennett, Federico; Assem, Hoda; Lotfi, Rana; Mele, Gianluca; Suvanov, Ilias; Islam, Asif M.
    The global economy is in its third year of deceleration amidst declining inflation and oil prices. The MENA region grew at 1.9 percent in 2023 and is forecasted to grow at 2.7 percent in 2024. And for the first time since the pandemic, MENA oil exporters and importers will grow at similar rates. The tragedy of the conflict in the Middle East has increased uncertainty. Rising debt leaves many countries in the region exposed. This report unpacks the nature of debt in the region. Oil importers have been unable to either inflate or grow out of debt. Exchange rate fluctuations, and particularly stock flow adjustments (SFA) play a sizeable role. The report highlights the need to address debt transparency. Extrabudgetary items, especially for developing oil importers, need to be accounted for. Primary balances are key, but only to the extent that they capture the true state of government finances.