The World Bank Open Knowledge Repository

The World Bank is the largest single source of development knowledge. The World Bank Open Knowledge Repository (OKR) is The World Bank’s official open access repository for its research outputs and knowledge products.

 

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Total publications: 37,362

Recently Added

  • Publication
    Kenya Economic Update, June 2024: Fostering Trade for Robust Growth and Dynamic Job Creation
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2024-06-14) World Bank
    Tight monetary policies, restrictive financial conditions, and the slowdown of global trade continued to weaken global growth. Global economic growth declined in 2023 and is expected to decline further in 2024. Although the monetary tightening in advanced economies is expected to end and the global headline inflation has reduced, policy rates are expected to only decline gradually, as core inflation has been more persistent. Commodity prices declined in 2023 and are expected to decline further in 2024. At the regional level, growth in Sub-Saharan Africa is expected to rebound in 2024-2025 driven by a boost in private consumption from the reduction in inflation and increasing real incomes. However, tight monetary policies and fiscal consolidation efforts will keep investment and public consumption subdued in 2024 even as inflation declines. Fiscal balances are expected to improve in 2024 but external borrowing costs remain high.
  • Publication
    Cambodia Economic Update, June 2024: Cambodia's Export Revival and Trade Shifts
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2024-06-14) World Bank
    Cambodia has made significant strides in expanding access to education over the past decade. The country’s net enrollment rates have increased steadily, with primary education attendance reaching 90 percent in 2019, up from 81 percent in 2009. Similarly, enrollments at the lower and upper secondary levels have shown good progress. Despite these improvements, Cambodia still faces numerous challenges in providing quality education to all its citizens. The recent COVID-19 pandemic has further exposed the vulnerabilities of the education system, with prolonged school closures leading to substantial learning losses. Even prior to the pandemic, Cambodia already faced high learning poverty rates, with students scoring low in both Khmer and mathematics. Moreover, disparities in access to education, especially at the secondary level, and variations in learning outcomes, persist across different geographic locations and socioeconomic backgrounds. This Special Focus chapter on education delves more deeply into these critical issues. By examining educational access, spending, outcomes, teacher effectiveness, and foundational learning, we seek to provide actionable policy recommendations to strengthen Cambodia’s education system. The chapter will address the following areas: access and equity in education, with a focus on early childhood education and primary schooling and an examination of trends in enrollment and learning outcomes and a discussion of strategies to enhance access and quality; trends in education spending and the relationship to learning outcomes and the need to focus on spending better; and the importance of teacher effectiveness and policies to improve teacher recruitment, training, and deployment. The final section summarizes the key findings and provides policy recommendations that prioritize spending better, improving teacher effectiveness, and strengthening foundational learning.
  • Publication
    Desktop Review: Analysis of The Pacific Islands Forum Members included in the EU List of Non-Cooperative Jurisdictions
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2024-06-14) World Bank
    The objective of this desktop study is to enhance the overall implementation of the international standards in the region and gain a better understanding of their technical assistance needs. This independent assessment concerning the technical challenges affecting the PIF members in the EU list has been requested by the PIF and completed by the World Bank Group (WBG). The desktop review has been prepared with public sources cited throughout the report. An interview with the Secretariat of the European Commission’s Directorate General for Taxation and Customs was also conducted. Section 2 of this note contains the evaluation of Fiji, Palau, Samoa, and Vanuatu; countries listed in the February 2024 update, against the EU tax good governance criteria. This section clearly identifies the situation of each country in respect of the criteria considered not met by the EU Council. The assessment was conducted exclusively using publicly available sources. Section 3 contains the main actions that each country must undertake to strengthen its international tax system, in accordance with the challenges identified in section. Technical assistance from international organizations can facilitate the completion of these actions. The WBG has strong expertise in the implementation of the tax transparency standards and the BEPS minimum standards within the Macroeconomics, Trade, and Investment (MTI) Global Practice. In addition, WBG works closely with other international organizations that help in these topics. Lastly, section 4 outlines the potential consequences faced by PIF countries for being in the EU list. However, this impact does not include quantification of FDI losses, as it is out of scope of this desktop review.
  • Publication
    Integrated Environmental and Social Sensitivity Mapping - Guidance for Early Offshore Wind Spatial Planning
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2024-06-14) World Bank Group
    In order to avoid the worst impacts of climate change, offshore wind will need to make an increasing contribution to the global effort to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in line with the Paris agreement. At the same time, it is imperative that offshore wind development is undertaken responsibly, considering both coastal communities and biodiversity. Especially in emerging market countries, coastal communities often rely heavily on the sea for their livelihoods, and the marine environment can be a vital part of their cultural norms and beliefs. Given the need to accelerate the deployment of offshore wind, governments in emerging markets are eager to progress quickly and some have already awarded seabed rights for projects, sometimes without adequate consideration of environmental and social (E&S) sensitivities. Poorly sited projects in areas where offshore wind could have significant impacts on communities and biodiversity will encounter difficulties throughout the permitting process, leading to delays and cost increases, and potentially resulting in projects failing to proceed. This guidance document is designed to support government planners in emerging market countries to identify potential areas for offshore wind development with the lowest E&S sensitivity.
  • Publication
    Cash Transfer Timing: How Transfer Duration and Frequency Contribute to Outcomes
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2024-06-14) World Bank
    Studies from 2016 on demonstrate that the impact of cash transfers varies based on duration, depending on whether they are distributed over a short (24 months or less) or long (more than 24 months) period. Cash transfers distributed over a long period provide predictability that is associated with greater impact, particularly with transfers distributed to improve children’s health, nutrition and education, and employment and labor. Longer duration of transfers allows for households to plan, which in turn allows households to engage in riskier yet more-profitable income-generating activities, when available. Longer duration of transfers, such as through universal basic income experiments, may especially benefit children when timed to pivotal developmental periods such as the first 1,000 days of life. This review examines the impact of the timing of cash transfers both in terms of duration and frequency of transfers, and at times in combination (where noted).