The World Bank Open Knowledge Repository

The World Bank Open Knowledge Repository (OKR) is The World Bank’s official open access repository for its research outputs and knowledge products.


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Total publications: 37,496

Recently Added

  • Publication
    Voting when Rankings Matter: Truthful Equilibria, Efficiency, and Abstention
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2024-07-12) Pongou, Roland; Sidie, Ghislain Junior
    Ranked voting is an election format in which each voter ranks candidates on a ballot, and individual rankings are aggregated using a general rule to produce a social ranking. This paper proposes a non-cooperative model of this electoral system. The setting allows for unequal voting rights, abstention, and social incomparability of candidates, and each voter's utility is measured by how close his or her true preferences are to the social ranking. The analysis uncovers three main findings. First, it proves the existence of a pure strategy Nash equilibrium. Second, it shows that truthtelling is always a Nash equilibrium regardless of the voting rule and the structure of individual preferences. Third, under mild conditions, truthtelling is Pareto-efficient when voters have strict preferences. Extending the analysis to majoritarian elections with costly voluntary participation shows that truthtelling is an equilibrium if and only if the costs of participation are not too high and the election is tight. The findings have implications for the design of ranked voting systems that are compatible with truthtelling and efficiency while allowing unrestricted freedom in the choice of the voting rule. A reinterpretation of the model in the context of intrapersonal bargaining, where the decision-maker has multiple rational selves, has implications for the occurrence of cyclic individual choices that reflect stable and efficient behavioral patterns.
  • Publication
    Regional Poverty and Inequality Update Spring 2024
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2024-07-12) World Bank
    This is the April 2024 issue of the bi-annual Regional Poverty and Inequality Update for Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC), which summarizes the main facts related to poverty and inequality in LAC using the new wave of harmonized household surveys from the Socio-Economic Database for Latin America and the Caribbean (SEDLAC). This brief was produced by the Poverty and Equity Global Practice in the Latin America and Caribbean Region of the World Bank.
  • Publication
    Iran Economic Monitor, Spring 2024: Sustaining Growth Amid Rising Geopolitical Tensions
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2024-07-12) World Bank
    The Iran Economic Monitor (IEM) provides an update on key economic developments and policies. It examines these economic developments and policies in a longer-term and global context and assesses their implications for the outlook for the country. The IEM’s coverage ranges from the macro-economy to financial markets to indicators of human welfare and development. It is intended for a wide audience, including policy makers, business leaders, financial market participants, and the community of analysts and professionals engaged on Iran.
  • Publication
    Nature-Related Risk Assessment Approaches for the Financial Sector: Applicable Approaches and Implications in East Asia and Pacific
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2024-07-12) World , Bank
    This paper analyzes several existing approaches and data platforms for assessing nature-related financial risk in the East Asia and Pacific region and examines the current level of disclosure by companies in East Asia and Pacific countries. Chapter 2 discusses how companies and financial institutions can assess their impact on nature using existing approaches, following the TNFD’s LEAP process. Chapter 3 explores specific data related to East Asia and Pacific countries from different platforms. It is noted that in some East Asia and Pacific countries, there are very few publicly listed companies, making it hard to find relevant corporate data. The chapter also highlights the challenges of applying existing approaches to developing economies. Chapter 4 compares sustainability disclosure standards and nature-related risk assessments in various East Asia and Pacific countries and analyzes reports on country-specific risks and companies’ own disclosures. Finally, chapter 5 summarizes the paper’s key findings, discusses its contributions and limitations, and suggests areas for future improvement. It proposes that financial regulators could improve by enhancing the availability of nature-related data, developing material indicators and metrics, instituting sustainability reporting requirements for financial institutions and corporations, supporting academic research to assess nature-related financial risks, and fostering regional cooperation.
  • Publication
    Mobilizing Private Capital for the Sustainable Development Goals
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2024-07-12) Cull, Robert; Gill, Indermit; Pedraza , Alvaro; Ruiz-Ortega, Claudia; Zeni, Federica
    This paper summarizes evidence on financial instruments and regulatory approaches to spur private investment in pursuit of the 2030 Sustainable Developments Goals. Starting from a theoretical framework demonstrating that raising the marginal product of capital is the key to crowding in private investment, it uses Robert Merton’s functional approach to financial intermediation to assess the track record and prospects for five types of instruments/regulatory approaches: guarantees, public-private partnerships, syndicated loans, sustainable financial contracts, and climate and banking regulations and policies. Despite considerable gains in the amount of private investment mobilized by these vehicles, the volumes still fall short of the trillions of dollars estimated to be necessary to achieve the Sustainable Developments Goals. Efforts to share relevant data, encourage more academic research, and publicize and demonstrate the effectiveness of these approaches, much of which is already being undertaken by the World Bank and other multilateral development banks, could be crucial to scale up private capital mobilization.