09. Knowledge Notes

4,288 items available

Permanent URI for this community

Knowledge Notes are short briefs (typically 4-6 pages in length) that capture lessons of experience from Bank operations and research in a succinct and easily digestible format (and usually reference larger works found elsewhere in the OKR). Work is underway to expand the collection to draw in more lessons that the staff want to highlight from ongoing and recent lending and economic and sector work (ESW).

Items in this collection

Now showing 1 - 10 of 4288
  • Publication
    What Have We Learned from EAPGIL Research? Accomplishments and Lessons Learned from the World Bank’s East Asia and Pacific Gender Innovation Lab: 2016 – 2024
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2024-07-18) World Bank
    EAPGIL’s mission is to generate evidence on what works—and does not—to promote gender equality in East Asia and Pacific and to translate evidence into better policies and programs. EAPGIL adopts a holistic approach, working with partners at every stage of the policy-making process, from setting the policy agenda to designing policies, programs, and interventions, to evaluating whether these programs achieve their goals. Beyond evaluating programs after they have taken place, EAPGIL views rigorous research as a cycle; previous findings can be used to inform future priorities and the design of interventions, which, in turn, can be evaluated to generate more evidence and further refine policies.
  • Publication
    Regional Poverty and Inequality Update Spring 2024
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2024-07-12) World Bank
    This is the April 2024 issue of the bi-annual Regional Poverty and Inequality Update for Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC), which summarizes the main facts related to poverty and inequality in LAC using the new wave of harmonized household surveys from the Socio-Economic Database for Latin America and the Caribbean (SEDLAC). This brief was produced by the Poverty and Equity Global Practice in the Latin America and Caribbean Region of the World Bank.
  • Publication
    Vietnam Macro Monitoring
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2024-07-09) World Bank
    Industrial production showed a significant increase, with the Index of Industrial Production (IIP) growing by 2.6 percent month-on-month (m/m) and 8.9 percent year-on-year (y/y), attributed to improved exports, particularly in manufacturing sectors. Retail sales experienced a modest recovery, growth rate indicated that consumer demand remains relatively weak. Both exports and imports experienced a surge, with exports and imports growing. The y/y growth rates were also substantial, suggesting increased demand from trade partners. Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) commitments and disbursements were solid, with the majority of FDI flowing into manufacturing and real estate sectors. Inflation rates remained stable, with the Consumer Price Index (CPI) inflation at 4.4 percent y/y and core inflation slightly moderating. The Vietnamese Dong (VND) continued to face depreciation pressure against the US Dollar (USD), and the interbank interest rates reflected a tightening of liquidity by the State Bank of Vietnam (SBV). Public revenue collection improved, but public expenditures and investment disbursements showed a slower pace. The government and SBV proposed measures to support the economy, including extending VAT reduction, reducing lending interest rates, and advancing the implementation of revised real estate laws. The report also notes that while there is a recovery in external demand, domestic demand and consumption show mixed signs. The authorities' measures aim to support the economy, but there are concerns about the impact of a strong US dollar and interest rate reductions on the exchange rate. The recommendation is to continue supporting aggregate demand through capital expenditures.
  • Publication
    AI Revolution in Education: What You Need to Know
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2024-07-01) Molina, E.; Cobo, C.; Pineda, J.; Rovner, H.
    The AI revolution is transforming education at an unprecedented pace, offering opportunities to personalize learning experiences, support teachers, and optimize education management. This brief explores nine key AI-driven innovations in Latin America and the Caribbean, divided into solutions for teachers, students, and administration. For teachers, AI-powered mentors and feedback systems are improving teacher recruitment, retention, and professional development. AI-assisted lesson planning and automated administrative tasks are empowering educators to focus on teaching and mentoring students. Students benefit from AI-powered tutoring systems that adapt to their individual needs. The brief also examines the use of generative AI for assignments and the need to foster responsible AI use. In education administration, AI streamlines processes, identifies at-risk students, and optimizes resource allocation, such as matching teachers to vacancies and students to schools. Navigating the promise and challenges of AI requires addressing key issues like digital divide, ethical governance, and limited evidence on effectiveness at scale. AI should enhance human expertise, not replace it. Policymakers must proactively shape the responsible development of AI to create an inclusive, innovative future of learning for all.
  • Item
    Unleashing Aspirations While Ensuring Opportunities Could Help Reduce Teenage Pregnancy in Latin America and the Caribbean
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2024-06-27) World Bank
    Teen pregnancies are common in Latin America and the Caribbean and pose risks for the mother and her future family. Though it has fallen, the region has the second highest teen pregnancy rate in the world (55 births per 1,000 girls aged 15-19), after Sub-Saharan Africa (World Bank 2023a). Teenage pregnancy poses risk of health complications and can lead to lower educational achievement and fewer job opportunities (Azevedo et al. 2012; The Economist 2019; World Bank 2023a).
  • Publication
    Ukraine - Human Development Update
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2024-06-25) World Bank
    This Ukraine human development update summarizes the cumulative effects of Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, provides an overview of World Bank support, and synthesizes findings from the third round of the Rapid Damage and Needs Assessment (RDNA3, February 2024) on damage and losses incurred between February 24, 2022 and December 31, 2023, as well as estimated needs for reconstruction and recovery in the health, education, and social protection and livelihoods sectors. The RDNA3 was conducted jointly by the World Bank, the government of Ukraine, the European Union, and the United Nations and supported by humanitarian and development partners, academia, civil society organizations, and other partners.
  • Publication
    Research for Innovation in Health Systems - Improving the Management of Health Care Services for Patients with Multiple Chronic Conditions in Three Latin American Countries: Brazil, Colombia and Uruguay - Key Messages
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2024-06-24) World Bank
    The accelerated aging of the Brazilian population, alongside the gradual increase in the concomitant occurrence of multiple chronic diseases in the same individual, brings important challenges to the Brazilian National Health System (SUS). n Colombia, during 2012 - 2016, multimorbidity had a prevalence of 19.5 percent for all ages, according to data from the study carried out by the World Bank and the Ministry of Health and Social Protection. The investigation also showed an increase in the use and cost of health services associated with older age and the complexity of multimorbidity, in an aging population that shifts its epidemiological profile towards chronic diseases. The expenditure with patients with multimorbidity in Uruguay is high. Persons with five or more of diseases (Cardiovascular Disease, High Blood Pressure, Diabetes, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Degenerative Neurological Disease) represent 8.44 percent of the total patient population, but their care accounts for 42.07 percent of the total expenditure, and 50.48 percent of the expenditure on medications.
  • Publication
    Mini Grids for Underserved Main Grid Customers
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2024-06-21) Tenenbaum, Bernard; Greacen, Chris; Shrestha, Ashish
    Can mini grids help to solve the problem of poorly served main grid connected communities A mini grid is an electricity generation and distribution network that supplies electricity to a localized group of customers. Mini grids can be isolated from or connected to the main grid. To date, most mini grids in Sub-Saharan Africa have been built in electrically isolated rural villages not connected to the main grid. Based on broad experience working with mini grid programs in more than 20 low- and middle-income countries and five detailed case studies, the authors offer observations and recommendations about mini grids in general and a new type known as “undergrid mini grids” being used in Nigeria and India to serve poorly served communities.
  • Publication
    Attracting, Retaining and Promoting Women in the Workplace is Good for Business: Lessons from the Mashreq
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2024-06-20) World Bank Group
    Expanding women’s employment in the private sector is imperative to increase female labor force participation in Mashreq countries. This knowledge brief identifies lessons learned from the IFC-led business case studies on firms that devise and implement policies to improve gender diversity in the workplace under the Mashreq Gender Facility (MGF), enriched by a literature review. It proposes specific actions firms can take under four areas: (a) committing & communicating to gender diversity; (b) attracting female talent; (c) retaining women in the workforce; (d) promoting women to more senior positions.
  • Item
    The Path to a Multimodal Future in Eastern South Asia
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2024-06-18) Nora, Erik; Kunaka, Charles; Nikore, Mitali
    The eastern South Asia region (Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, and Nepal) has extensive networks of all the main modes of surface transport for the movement of goods, both within and between countries. However, goods transport in the region is heavily dependent on a single mode—road transportation—which accounts for about three-quarters of the market in India and Bangladesh and over 90 percent in Bhutan and Nepal. The regional road transportation system faces significant structural challenges that undermine its effectiveness, notably severe congestion and poor reliability. Multimodal transport is increasingly recognized in the region as a way of achieving seamless movement of freight. When combined with measures that synchronize and optimize the entire transportation chain, it can relieve congestion and decrease transit times by 40-50 percent. Many regional trade routes within eastern South Asia are long, exceeding 250 kilometers—a distance where rail and Inland Waterway Transport (IWT) have a competitive edge over road transport due to their lower costs and higher capacity for bulk shipments. This is particularly relevant given that mineral transportation, which is well-suited to these modes due to its bulk nature, constitutes a significant 67 percent of total cross-border trade flow in eastern South Asia. To better understand the economic benefits of improving multimodal transportation in eastern South Asia, the World Bank developed a detailed trade and transport model. The findings indicate that while both soft and hard measures are essential for creating a more efficient multimodal transport network, dismantling critical regulatory and policy barriers is three times more effective in enhancing the region’s trade potential. This paper focuses on the various dimensions of a multimodal freight transport system for eastern South Asia, examining the challenges that must be overcome to fully realize its potential.