Publication: Designing Mandatory Pension Schemes : Some Lessons from Argentina, Chile, Malaysia, and Singapore
In most countries, participation in a public pension system involving some kind of redistribution is compulsory, while participation in private pension schemes is voluntary. There are growing fears in many countries that the value of public pensions will not be sustained. There are similar fears about company pensions. The credibility of company pensions depends on the integrity and solvency of large employers, which can no longer be taken for granted. These problems point to a need to refine compulsory saving. Drawing on the experiences of countries in Asia, Latin America, and elsewhere, this Note provides some guidance on answering the following questions: 1) Whom to compel? 2) Defined contribution or benefit? 3) How large should compulsory contributions be? 4) Who should manage the funds? 5) What types of regulation are appropriate? 6) What state guarantees for what system? 7) How to offer tax incentives?
“Vittas, Dimitri. 1996. Designing Mandatory Pension Schemes : Some Lessons from Argentina, Chile, Malaysia, and Singapore. Viewpoint. © World Bank, Washington, DC. http://openknowledge.worldbank.org/entities/publication/449250f6-e34e-5569-a419-24c2954d1028 License: CC BY 3.0 IGO.”
Other publications in this report series
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PublicationSmall Business Tax Regimes(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2016-02)Simplified tax regimes for micro and small enterprises in developing countries are intended to facilitate voluntary tax compliance. However, survey evidence suggests that small business taxation based on simplified bookkeeping or turnover is sometimes perceived as too complex for microenterprises in countries with high illiteracy levels. Very simple fixed tax regimes not requiring any books or records tend to be overly popular but prone to abuse. System reforms will require more precise tailoring of the simplified regimes to their target beneficiaries, coupled with strong compliance management to detect and deter abuse. The overall objective of simplified taxation for micro and small enterprises (MSEs) in developing countries is generally to facilitate voluntary tax compliance and remove obstacles in moving toward business formalization and growth.
PublicationCompetition and Poverty(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2016-04)A literature review shows competition policy reforms can deliver benefits for the poorest households and improve income distribution. A lack of competition in food markets hurts the poorest households the most. Competition in input markets and between buyers helps farmers and small businesses. And more competitive markets bolster job growth over the longer term. More research is needed, however, to better understand the impact of competition reforms and antitrust enforcement on poverty and shared prosperity.