Publication: Utility Regulators : Decisionmaking Structures, Resources, and Start-Up Strategy
The design of a regulatory agency's decisionmaking structure encompasses issues relating to the number of decisionmakers, the basis for selecting them, the role played by stakeholders, and the regulatory and appeals processes. The selection of the regulator is critical--especially in countries that have yet to establish a reputation for competence and reliability. When agencies are to be independent, the goal should be to select regulators with the personal qualities needed to exercise independent judgement and resist improper pressures. An appeals process is also important to ensure that the regulator does not stray from its mandate and that it remains accountable. The author outlines good practice.
“Smith, Warrick. 1997. Utility Regulators : Decisionmaking Structures, Resources, and Start-Up Strategy. Viewpoint. © World Bank, Washington, DC. http://openknowledge.worldbank.org/entities/publication/3e3fe441-d337-5548-90ec-3e9013cc6440 License: CC BY 3.0 IGO.”
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PublicationSmall Business Tax Regimes(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2016-02)Simplified tax regimes for micro and small enterprises in developing countries are intended to facilitate voluntary tax compliance. However, survey evidence suggests that small business taxation based on simplified bookkeeping or turnover is sometimes perceived as too complex for microenterprises in countries with high illiteracy levels. Very simple fixed tax regimes not requiring any books or records tend to be overly popular but prone to abuse. System reforms will require more precise tailoring of the simplified regimes to their target beneficiaries, coupled with strong compliance management to detect and deter abuse. The overall objective of simplified taxation for micro and small enterprises (MSEs) in developing countries is generally to facilitate voluntary tax compliance and remove obstacles in moving toward business formalization and growth.
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