Does It Pay to Be a Cadre? Estimating the Returns to Being a Local Official in Rural China

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collection.link.5
https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/9
collection.name.5
Policy Research Working Papers
dc.contributor.author
Zhang, Jian
dc.contributor.author
Giles, John
dc.contributor.author
Rozelle, Scott
dc.date.accessioned
2012-06-29T21:01:00Z
dc.date.available
2012-06-29T21:01:00Z
dc.date.issued
2012-06
dc.date.lastModified
2021-04-23T14:02:45Z
dc.description.abstract
Recruiting and retaining leaders and public servants at the grass-roots level in developing countries creates a potential tension between providing sufficient returns to attract talent and limiting the scope for excessive rent-seeking behavior. In China, researchers have frequently argued that village cadres, who are the lowest level of administrators in rural areas, exploit personal political status for economic gain. Much existing research, however, compares the earnings of cadre and non-cadre households in rural China without controlling for unobserved dimensions of ability that are also correlated with success as entrepreneurs or in non-agricultural activities. The findings of this paper suggest a measurable return to cadre status, but the magnitudes are not large and provide only a modest incentive to participate in village-level government. The paper does not find evidence that households of village cadres earn significant rents from having a family member who is a cadre. Given the increasing returns to non-agricultural employment since China's economic reforms began, it is not surprising that the returns to working as a village cadre have also increased over time. Returns to cadre-status are derived both from direct compensation and subsidies for cadres and indirectly through returns earned in off-farm employment from businesses and economic activities managed by villages.
en
dc.identifier
http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/2012/06/16357383/pay-cadre-estimating-returns-being-local-official-rural-china
dc.identifier.uri
http://hdl.handle.net/10986/9340
dc.language
English
dc.publisher
World Bank, Washington, DC
dc.relation.ispartofseries
Policy Research Working Paper; No. 6081
dc.rights
CC BY 3.0 IGO
dc.rights.holder
World Bank
dc.rights.uri
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/igo/
dc.subject
ADMINISTRATIVE REGIONS
dc.subject
AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
dc.subject
AGRICULTURAL EMPLOYMENT
dc.subject
AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
dc.subject
ATTRITION
dc.subject
BORROWING
dc.subject
CITIES
dc.subject
COMMUNITIES
dc.subject
CONSUMER PRICE INDEX
dc.subject
CONSUMPTION EXPENDITURE
dc.subject
COUNTRYSIDE
dc.subject
DEBT
dc.subject
DEMOCRACY
dc.subject
DEMOGRAPHIC
dc.subject
DEPOSITS
dc.subject
DESCRIPTION
dc.subject
DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
dc.subject
DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH GROUP
dc.subject
DIRECT PAYMENTS
dc.subject
DISTRIBUTION CHANNELS
dc.subject
ECONOMIC BENEFITS
dc.subject
ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
dc.subject
ECONOMIC REFORM
dc.subject
ECONOMIC REFORMS
dc.subject
ECONOMIC SHOCKS
dc.subject
ECONOMICS
dc.subject
EMPLOYMENT
dc.subject
EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES
dc.subject
FAMILY LABOR
dc.subject
FARM EMPLOYMENT
dc.subject
FARM INCOME
dc.subject
FARM OUTPUT
dc.subject
FARM PRICES
dc.subject
FARM WORK
dc.subject
FARMERS
dc.subject
FARMLAND
dc.subject
FINANCIAL ASSETS
dc.subject
FINANCIAL RETURN
dc.subject
GROWTH RATE
dc.subject
HIGHER INEQUALITY
dc.subject
HOUSEHOLD HEAD
dc.subject
HOUSEHOLD INCOME
dc.subject
HOUSEHOLD LEVEL
dc.subject
HOUSEHOLD PER CAPITA INCOME
dc.subject
HOUSEHOLD SIZE
dc.subject
HOUSEHOLD SURVEY
dc.subject
HOUSEHOLD SURVEY DATA
dc.subject
HOUSEHOLD SURVEYS
dc.subject
HOUSEHOLD WELFARE
dc.subject
HOUSEHOLD-LEVEL
dc.subject
HOUSEHOLDS
dc.subject
HOUSING
dc.subject
HUMAN CAPITAL
dc.subject
HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
dc.subject
INCOME
dc.subject
INCOME GAP
dc.subject
INCOME GROWTH
dc.subject
INCOME INEQUALITY
dc.subject
INCOMES
dc.subject
INEQUALITY
dc.subject
INFORMAL TRANSFERS
dc.subject
INTANGIBLES
dc.subject
INTRINSIC MOTIVATION
dc.subject
LABOR MARKET
dc.subject
LABOR MARKETS
dc.subject
LABOR SUPPLY
dc.subject
LABORERS
dc.subject
LAND RIGHTS
dc.subject
LEASING
dc.subject
LOCAL BANKS
dc.subject
MACRO ECONOMIC SHOCKS
dc.subject
MARKET INFORMATION
dc.subject
MARKET PRICES
dc.subject
MOBILITY
dc.subject
OPPORTUNITY COSTS
dc.subject
POLITICAL ECONOMY
dc.subject
POLITICAL INFLUENCE
dc.subject
POOR
dc.subject
PREFERENTIAL ACCESS
dc.subject
PRIVATIZATION
dc.subject
REGRESSORS
dc.subject
REMOTE VILLAGES
dc.subject
RENTS
dc.subject
RURAL
dc.subject
RURAL AREAS
dc.subject
RURAL CONSUMER
dc.subject
RURAL ECONOMY
dc.subject
RURAL HOUSEHOLD
dc.subject
RURAL HOUSEHOLDS
dc.subject
RURAL LABOR
dc.subject
RURAL POPULATION
dc.subject
RURAL RESIDENTS
dc.subject
RURAL VILLAGES
dc.subject
SECRETARIES
dc.subject
SERVANTS
dc.subject
SHARE PRICES
dc.subject
SOCIAL PROTECTION
dc.subject
STANDARD ERROR
dc.subject
STANDARD ERRORS
dc.subject
STATISTICAL SIGNIFICANCE
dc.subject
SUPPLIERS
dc.subject
TAX
dc.subject
TOWNS
dc.subject
TREASURY
dc.subject
URBAN AREAS
dc.subject
URBANIZATION
dc.subject
VILLAGE LEADERS
dc.subject
VILLAGE LEVEL
dc.subject
VILLAGES
dc.subject
WAGES
dc.subject
YOUTH
dc.title
Does It Pay to Be a Cadre? Estimating the Returns to Being a Local Official in Rural China
en
okr.crosscuttingsolutionarea
Jobs
okr.date.disclosure
2012-06-01
okr.doctype
Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
okr.doctype
Publications & Research
okr.docurl
http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/2012/06/16357383/pay-cadre-estimating-returns-being-local-official-rural-china
okr.globalpractice
Social, Urban, Rural and Resilience
okr.globalpractice
Social Protection and Labor
okr.globalpractice
Poverty
okr.globalpractice
Trade and Competitiveness
okr.googlescholar.linkpresent
yes
okr.identifier.doi
10.1596/1813-9450-6082
okr.identifier.externaldocumentum
000158349_20120611101435
okr.identifier.internaldocumentum
16357383
okr.identifier.report
WPS6082
okr.language.supported
en
okr.pdfurl
http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2012/06/11/000158349_20120611101435/Rendered/PDF/WPS6082.pdf
en
okr.region.administrative
East Asia and Pacific
okr.region.country
China
okr.sector
Finance :: General finance sector
okr.theme
Public sector governance :: Other public sector governance
okr.topic
Social Protections and Labor :: Labor Policies
okr.topic
Housing and Human Habitats
okr.topic
Poverty Reduction :: Rural Poverty Reduction
okr.topic
Private Sector Development :: Emerging Markets
okr.topic
Poverty Reduction :: Small Area Estimation Poverty Mapping
okr.topic
Communities and Human Settlements
okr.unit
Development Research Group (DECRG)
okr.volume
1 of 1

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