Inequalities in Job Loss and Income Loss in Sub-Saharan Africa during the COVID-19 Crisis

This paper uses high-frequency phone survey data from Ethiopia, Malawi, Nigeria, and Uganda to analyze the impacts of the COVID-19 crisis on work (including wage employment, self-employment, and farm work) and income, as well as heterogeneity by gender, family composition, education, age, pre-COVID19 industry of work, and between the rural and urban sectors. The paper links phone survey data collected throughout the pandemic to pre-COVID-19 face-to-face survey data to track the employment of respondents who were working before the pandemic and analyze individual-level indicators of job loss and re-employment. Finally, it analyzes both immediate impacts, during the first few months of the pandemic, as well as longer run impacts through February/March 2021. The findings show that in the early phase of the pandemic, women, young, and urban workers were significantly more likely to lose their jobs. A year after the onset of the pandemic, these inequalities disappeared and education became the main predictor of joblessness. The analysis finds significant rural/urban, age, and education gradients in household-level income loss. Households with income from nonfarm enterprises were the most likely to report income loss, in the short run as well as the longer run.
Link to Data Set
Contreras-Gonzalez, Ivette; Oseni, Gbemisola; Palacios-Lopez, Amparo; Janneke, Pieters; Weber, Michael. 2022. Inequalities in Job Loss and Income Loss in Sub-Saharan Africa during the COVID-19 Crisis. Policy Research Working Papers;10143. © World Bank, Washington, DC. License: CC BY 3.0 IGO.
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