Improving Access to HIV/AIDS Medicines in Africa : Trade-related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights Flexibilities Osewe, Patrick L. Nkrumah, Yvonne K. Sackey, Emmanuel K. 2013-05-24T16:56:50Z 2013-05-24T16:56:50Z 2010-04-20
dc.description.abstract The study begins with an overview of the Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) agreement and its flexibilities, delineating the legal requirements of the TRIPS agreement regarding their use. It then examines the challenges entailed in the beneficial interpretation and implementation of the TRIPS agreement at both the national and regional levels under the auspices of African Regional Intellectual Property Organization (ARIPO) and African Intellectual Property Organization (OAPI). The next section reviews the domestic antiretroviral (ARV) production experiences of Zimbabwe, Kenya, South Africa, and Ghana with an eye for evaluating the option of sustainable local production. The study is based on existing literature and on interaction with various key players and resource persons in government institutions, the private sector, and civil society groups, especially nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) at the national level. Information was gathered from officials of the regional patent institutions, OAPI and ARIPO, along with official documents of these institutions. International organizations involved in HIV/AIDS work in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) also provided input. The study was conducted under considerable time and logistical constraints, making it difficult to meet and interview all the persons that the authors wished to consult during travel across the African continent. Another limitation was the lack of an easily accessible database on ARVs and other HIV/AIDS medicines being used in Africa, their patent status, and their relative prices. National drug procurement bodies were often reluctant to divulge information on prices and quantities of medicines obtained. en
dc.identifier.isbn 978-0-8213-7544-0
dc.language.iso en_US
dc.publisher Washington, DC: World Bank
dc.relation.ispartofseries Directions in Development--Human Development;
dc.rights CC BY 3.0 IGO
dc.rights.holder World Bank
dc.subject adequate remuneration
dc.subject administrative procedures
dc.subject administrative process
dc.subject administrative processes
dc.subject affordable access
dc.subject Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects
dc.subject anticompetitive practices
dc.subject applicable law
dc.subject bargaining power
dc.subject best practice
dc.subject best practices
dc.subject bilateral agreement
dc.subject Biotechnology
dc.subject brain tumors
dc.subject capacity-building
dc.subject civil society
dc.subject Common Market
dc.subject compulsory licenses
dc.subject Copyright
dc.subject decision making
dc.subject dermatitis
dc.subject developing world
dc.subject dispute settlement
dc.subject Dispute Settlement Body
dc.subject domestic industries
dc.subject domestic laws
dc.subject domestic legislation
dc.subject domestic market
dc.subject E-mail
dc.subject Economic Community
dc.subject European Union
dc.subject exchange rate
dc.subject expiry date
dc.subject exporting country
dc.subject external market
dc.subject foreign exchange
dc.subject global market
dc.subject global trading
dc.subject government expenditure
dc.subject government policy
dc.subject harmonization
dc.subject headaches
dc.subject health care
dc.subject Health Services
dc.subject hospitals
dc.subject immunodeficiency
dc.subject implementation strategies
dc.subject import duty
dc.subject importing countries
dc.subject importing country
dc.subject industrial property
dc.subject information flow
dc.subject innovation
dc.subject innovations
dc.subject institutional capacity
dc.subject Intellectual Property
dc.subject Intellectual Property Organization
dc.subject intellectual property right
dc.subject Intellectual Property Rights
dc.subject international agreements
dc.subject International Bank
dc.subject international conventions
dc.subject international law
dc.subject international levels
dc.subject International organizations
dc.subject invention
dc.subject inventions
dc.subject IP
dc.subject joint ventures
dc.subject laws
dc.subject legal basis
dc.subject legal framework
dc.subject legal instruments
dc.subject legal requirements
dc.subject legal status
dc.subject license
dc.subject Licensing
dc.subject licensing agreements
dc.subject local industry
dc.subject local market
dc.subject Local Production
dc.subject manufacturing
dc.subject market share
dc.subject marketing
dc.subject material
dc.subject Medicines
dc.subject member countries
dc.subject member state
dc.subject member states
dc.subject minimum standards
dc.subject Ministerial Conference
dc.subject mutual recognition
dc.subject national laws
dc.subject national legislation
dc.subject neighboring countries
dc.subject nontariff barriers
dc.subject Patent
dc.subject patent application
dc.subject patent applications
dc.subject patent holders
dc.subject patent law
dc.subject patent laws
dc.subject patent protection
dc.subject patent rights
dc.subject patent systems
dc.subject Patentability
dc.subject patented drugs
dc.subject Patented products
dc.subject Patents
dc.subject patients
dc.subject pdf
dc.subject Photo
dc.subject policy makers
dc.subject preferential treatment
dc.subject private sector
dc.subject procurement
dc.subject procurement practices
dc.subject procurement processes
dc.subject production process
dc.subject production processes
dc.subject Protection Article
dc.subject protection of intellectual property
dc.subject protocols
dc.subject Public Health
dc.subject public interest
dc.subject public opinion
dc.subject public sector
dc.subject purchasing power
dc.subject quality control
dc.subject quality of life
dc.subject queries
dc.subject regional basis
dc.subject regional bodies
dc.subject regional groups
dc.subject regional institutions
dc.subject regional level
dc.subject regional organizations
dc.subject Regional Trade
dc.subject regulatory approval
dc.subject regulatory authorities
dc.subject regulatory framework
dc.subject regulatory regimes
dc.subject result
dc.subject results
dc.subject right holder
dc.subject royalties
dc.subject Sahara
dc.subject search
dc.subject searches
dc.subject secure access
dc.subject Social security
dc.subject standardization
dc.subject Sub-Saharan Africa
dc.subject subsidiary rights
dc.subject supervision
dc.subject technical assistance
dc.subject technical knowledge
dc.subject technological development
dc.subject technological knowledge
dc.subject technology transfer
dc.subject Telephone
dc.subject The Gambia
dc.subject trade areas
dc.subject trade dispute
dc.subject trade negotiations
dc.subject trade rules
dc.subject trade sanctions
dc.subject trading system
dc.subject transition period
dc.subject Transition Periods
dc.subject TRIPS Agreement
dc.subject Unfair Competition
dc.subject universal access
dc.subject users
dc.subject uses
dc.subject utility model
dc.subject utility models
dc.subject virus
dc.subject workers
dc.subject World Trade
dc.subject World Trade Organization
dc.title Improving Access to HIV/AIDS Medicines in Africa : Trade-related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights Flexibilities en
dspace.entity.type Publication 2010-04-20
okr.doctype Publications & Research :: Publication
okr.doctype Publications & Research
okr.globalpractice Governance
okr.globalpractice Transport and ICT
okr.globalpractice Health, Nutrition, and Population
okr.globalpractice Trade and Competitiveness
okr.globalpractice Trade and Competitiveness
okr.identifier.doi 10.1596/978-0-8213-7544-0 44815
okr.language.supported en
okr.region.administrative Africa
okr.topic Health, Nutrition and Population :: Health Monitoring & Evaluation
okr.topic International Economics and Trade :: Trade and Regional Integration
okr.topic Law and Development :: Real & Intellectual Property Law
okr.topic Law and Development :: Trade Law
okr.topic Private Sector Development :: E-Business
okr.unit Human Development Division (WBIHD)
relation.isSeriesOfPublication 706db16a-e556-46f0-8283-1b4a4b88645c
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