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  • Publication
    Technical Note on Accessibility: The Narrative
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2022-04-28) World Bank
    This technical note focuses on various dimensions of accessibility. The note describes various accessibility barriers, recommendations, methodologies, and strategies, with a particular focus on persons with disabilities. However, as highlighted throughout the entire document, it is stressed that accessibility is a universal issue that concerns a much larger population and intersects with other identities, including those of children, older persons, persons who have terminal or transient illnesses/diseases, women and girls, Indigenous Peoples, youth, sexual and gender minorities, people with temporary injuries, and mothers/fathers/caregivers using strollers and other supportive devices to carry their children. The technical note on accessibility is primarily meant for World Bank Task Team Leaders (TTLs), Project Implementing Units (PIUs) and Environmental & Social (E&S) specialists. However, it can also serve as a reference for other internal teams that are working on accessibility issues with the private sector (for example with the International Finance Corporation, IFC), and the procurement sector, as well as for the Bank’s development partners, borrowing countries, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), and organizations of persons with disabilities (OPDs). This note focuses primarily on Investment Project Financing (IPF).
  • Publication
    A Novel Tobacco Market Diversification: Unsmoking Rich Countries while Smoking Low-and-Middle Income Countries
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2022-04-27) Marquez, Patricio V.
    In this working paper, an exploration of available data and information is conducted and findings presented, to support the view that the dichotomous business model and related harm reduction narrative promoted nowadays by the tobacco industry, merits scrutiny by the international community. The promotion of e-cigarettes as welfare enhancing in rich countries, particularly because they are posited to help adult smokers quit, tends to obfuscate a dire reality. The same tobacco industry that promotes (e-cigarettes as harm reduction in rich countries, derives the bulk of its profits by selling cigarettes in lower income countries.
  • Publication
    The Role of Coherence in Strengthening Community Accountability for Remote Schools in Indonesia
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2022-04) Hwa, Yue Yi; Lumbanraja, Sharon Kanthy; Riyanto, Usha Adelina; Susanti, Dewi
    Incoherence in accountability relationships, or the lack of alignment between the various components of a specific education system, can hamper the quality of education. Such incoherence can be a particular challenge in resource constrained, remote villages where teachers tend to have higher educational capital and social status than the parents and communities whom they serve. We analyzed quantitative and qualitative data from a randomized controlled trial of a social accountability mechanism (SAM) for primary schools in remote Indonesian villages. The intervention had three treatment groups, all of which included the SAM, that engaged village-level stakeholders in a consensus-building process that led to joint service agreements for supporting the learning process. Prior analyses have found that all three treatment groups significantly improved student learning, but the treatment group combining the SAM with teacher performance pay based on camera-monitored teacher attendance led to much larger gains than the SAM-only treatment group or the treatment group combining the SAM with teacher performance pay based on a community-evaluated scorecard. Drawing on a range of quantitative data sources across all treatment group schools (process monitoring, survey, and service agreement indicators) and qualitative data from nine case study schools (interviews and focus group discussions), we show first that the student learning gains across all three treatment groups were accompanied by increases in both the coherence of the accountability relationships between village-level stakeholders and the degree to which these relationships were oriented toward the purpose of cultivating learning. We further show that the treatment group combining the SAM with camera monitored teacher attendance led to greater improvements in the coherence of accountability relationships than the other treatment groups, because the cameras improved both the technical capacity and the social legitimacy of community members to hold teachers accountable. This coherence-focused, relational explanation for the relative effectiveness of the treatment groups has more explanatory power than alternative explanations that focus narrowly on information quality or incentive structure. Our analysis reinforces arguments for ensuring that accountability structures are coherent with the local context, including local social structures and power dynamics.
  • Publication
    WBG COVID-19 Crisis Response Operational Update: Delivering on the WBG Twin Goals in an Era of Compounding Crises
    (Washington, DC, 2022-03-31) World Bank
    This note provides an update on the WBG’s COVID-19 Crisis Response, outlined in June 2020 to help developing countries address the impacts of the pandemic while maintaining a line of sight to long-term development goals. It comprises five short sections: (I) the impacts of COVID-19 and compounding crises on developing countries, (II) an update on the WBG’s operational crisis response and priorities moving forward, (III) the critical role of international coordination, (IV) WBG financing framework for GRID, and (V) concluding remarks.
  • Publication
    Structured Lesson Plans for Literacy Instruction: A Compendium of Global Resources - A Collection of Early-Grade Teaching and Learning Materials in 40+ Languages
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2022-03-31) World Bank
    Literacy is the cornerstone of education, and a driver of human economic, social, and civic wellbeing. Despite its importance, far too many children fail to become literate. The World Bank uses a measure called learning poverty to indicate when a child cannot read and understand an age-appropriate text by age ten. The best available data showed that more than two-thirds of children in low- and middle-income countries suffer learning poverty. The World Bank is committed to helping countries achieve the learning target: to cut learning poverty by at least half by 2030. Achieving better outcomes in literacy requires a comprehensive effort in many domains. One of the most important is ensuring that students and teachers have and use high-quality instructional materials, especially textbooks, for reading instruction. As countries and systems review their literacy teaching and learning materials, they will want to compare them to the materials from other countries and systems. The purpose of the compendium is to allow such reviews and comparisons by grouping a critical mass of structured pedagogy lesson plans and related materials in one place.
  • Publication
    Sustainable Cities Towards A Green, Resilient and Inclusive Recovery: Applying the Sustainable Cities Implementation Framework in Bulgaria, Croatia, Poland, and Romania
    (Washington, DC, 2022-03) World Bank
    Cities are key to unlocking a climate-smart future for all, as they account for more than 50 percent of the global population, about 70 percent of global energy-related CO2 emissions and 80 percent of global GDP. Urban centers’ share of emissions is expected to grow as the urban population is projected to increase by 2.3 billion people by 20502. As the world recovers from the COVID-19 crisis, cities will present a huge opportunity to rebuild in a way that is climate friendly and meets some of the world’s ambitious climate targets. Cities are viewed as the source of and the solution to many of today's economic, social, and environmental challenges. This is not only because of the concentration of population and economic assets in urban areas, but also because local authorities perform key functions that impact the quality of life of their residents. From an urban management perspective, the leading resource and knowledge sharing platform is the GEF funded Global Platform for Sustainable Cities (GPSC), hosted by the World Bank. The GPSC states that achieving sustainability requires the balanced accomplishment of outcomes against four pillars, namely (1) robust economic growth, prosperity, and competitiveness across all parts of the city; (2) protection and conservation of ecosystems and natural resources into perpetuity; (3) mitigation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions while fostering overall city resilience; and (4) inclusiveness and livability, mainly through the reduction of city poverty levels and inequality. The Urban Sustainability Framework (USF), developed to outline the areas of work and support by the GPSC, offers a very useful representation of both outcomes as well as enabling actions and requirements (such as spatial data and good governance) cities could focus on.
  • Publication
    Investing in Digital Hydrometeorological Data for the Developing World
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2022-03) Thorpe, Alan; Rogers, David P.
    Addressing many of the global challenges facing humankind requires the availability, access, and use of huge volumes of digital hydrometeorological (hereafter “hydromet”) data needed to inform decision-making to save lives and infrastructure as well as to exploit the associated economic opportunities. The global challenges include the world’s increasing vulnerability to weather, climate, and water stresses, and they are especially acute in developing countries. This technical note outlines the opportunities and requirements for developing countries to be able to benefit from the digital hydromet data revolution.
  • Publication
    Compendium: Coastal Management Practices in West Africa - Existing and Potential Solutions to Control Coastal Erosion, Prevent Flooding and Mitigate Damage to Society
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2022-02-28) World Bank
    Erosion and flooding are the most visible consequences of coastal zone degradation in West Africa. Man-made and natural processes, aggravated by the effects of climate change, cause erosion and flooding. These threatened densely populated coasts, the nerve center of the region’s demographic and economic growth. Every year, coastal degradation takes a heavy toll on human life and socio-economic prosperity. Moreover, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) projections suggest that coastal erosion and flooding in West Africa is set to increase in the 21st century. Understanding the hazards and managing the coastline sustainably is a major challenge for the development of the region. The West Africa Coastal Areas Management Program (WACA) supports ongoing efforts led by countries and regional institutions to strengthen the resilience of communities and ecosystems. This is achieved by providing financing, facilitating access to knowledge and deepening dialogue around development challenges. The main objective of the Compendium: Coastal Management Practices in West Africa is to make knowledge on coastal management practices available to practitioners and decision-makers engaged in building coastal resilience in West Africa. At the same time, it informs any stakeholder concerned by risks related to coastal erosion and flooding. It complements technical catalogs on vulnerability to erosion, flood risks and flood protection infrastructure in West Africa.
  • Publication
    World - Climate Services Operational Pathways: Pathways for Transforming Weather, Water, and Climate Services in Mozambique
    (Washington, DC, 2022-01-28) World Bank
    This study was commissioned by climate investment funds (CIF’s) E and L initiative to distill lessons from CIF’s pilot program on climate resilience (PPCR) support in identifying, designing, and implementing hydrometeorological and climate services investments. It seeks to generate learning and strategic insight into the different operational pathways that can be taken by national hydrological and meteorological services to develop, deliver, and strengthen hydrometeorological and climate services. The outputs from the study comprise of one synthesis report and three country studies for Jamaica, Mozambique, and Nepal. These three countries have been selected for the study due to their different institutional frameworks, hydrometeorological systems, and socio-economic context. They provide diverse in-depth insights in hydrometeorological and climate service development, delivery and use. In this respect, the PPCR-supported Climate Resilience: Transforming Hydrometeorological Services Project was selected as a case study project for Mozambique. It elucidates lessons learned on the process for modernizing hydrometeorological systems and delivering climate services to users. Furthermore, it offers insight into challenges and opportunities for climate services development, delivery, and use in Southern African developing countries. Qualitative methods, including structured interviews and literature review, were used to identify promising pathways to continue to transform weather, water, and climate services in the three case study countries. In Mozambique, the analysis of the data collected revealed six themes regarding critical pathways to transform weather, water, and climate services in the country. These are: harmonizing and integrating data resources; improving hydrometeorological and climate service design and delivery; fostering hydrometeorological and climate services impact through user feedback; building appropriate human capacity; strengthening national coordination; and promoting regional collaboration. The report summarizes key findings.
  • Publication
    World - Climate Services Operational Pathways: Pathways for Transforming Weather, Water, and Climate Services in Jamaica
    (Washington, DC, 2022-01-27) World Bank
    This report was commissioned by climate investment funds (CIF’s) E and L initiative to distill lessons from CIF’s pilot program on climate resilience (PPCR) support identifying, designing, and implementing hydrometeorological and climate services investments. It seeks to generate learning and strategic insight into the different operational pathways that can be taken by national hydrological and meteorological services to develop, deliver, and strengthen hydrometeorological and climate services. The outputs from the study comprise of one synthesis report and three country studies for Jamaica, Mozambique, and Nepal. These three countries have been selected for the study due to their different institutional frameworks, hydrometeorological systems, and socio-economic context. They provide diverse in-depth insights in hydrometeorological and climate service development, delivery, and use. In this respect, the PPCR-supported Improving Climate Data and Information Management Project (ICDIMP) was selected as a case study project for Jamaica. As of December 2021, the project is still under implementation and, based on the project experience acquired so far, this country study elucidates lessons learned on the process for modernizing hydrometeorological systems and developing climate services to users. Furthermore, it offers insight into challenges and opportunities for climate services development, delivery, and use in the Caribbean countries and small island developing states. Qualitative methods, including structured interviews and literature review, were used to identify promising pathways to transform weather, water, and climate services in the three case study countries. In Jamaica, the analysis of the data collected revealed seven themes regarding critical pathways to continue to transform weather, water, and climate services in the country. These comprise of integrating hydrometeorological data resources; hydrometeorological and climate service design and delivery; fostering hydrometeorological and climate services impact through user feedback; building appropriate human capacity; strengthening national coordination; promoting international collaboration; and institutional strengthening. The report summarizes key findings and recommendations.