Publication:
Are Irrigation Rehabilitation Projects Good for Poor Farmers in Peru?

Loading...
Thumbnail Image
Files in English
English PDF (795.67 KB)
432 downloads
English Text (93.63 KB)
51 downloads
Date
2009-12-09
ISSN
Published
2009-12-09
Author(s)
Datar, Gayatri
Abstract
This paper analyzes changes in agricultural production and economic welfare of farmers in rural Peru resulting from a large irrigation infrastructure rehabilitation project. The analysis uses a ten-year district panel and a spatial regression discontinuity approach to measure the causal effect of the intervention. While general impacts are modest, the analysis shows that the project is progressive--poor farmers consistently benefit more than non-poor farmers. Farmers living in districts with a rehabilitated irrigation site experience positive labor dynamics, in terms of income and agricultural jobs. Poor farmers increase their total income by more than $220 per year compared with the control group, while rich farmers do not experience such an income gain. The results also show crop specialization patterns in the economic status of farm households; poorer farm households increase their production of staple crops, such as beans and potatoes, while non-poor beneficiary farmers cultivate more industrial crops. Findings from this evaluation have important implications for pro-poor policy design in the agricultural sector.
Link to Data Set
Citation
Datar, Gayatri; Del Carpio, Ximena V.. 2009. Are Irrigation Rehabilitation Projects Good for Poor Farmers in Peru?. Policy Research working paper ; no. WPS 5154,Impact Evaluation series ; no. IE 42. © http://hdl.handle.net/10986/4347 License: CC BY 3.0 IGO.
Report Series
Report Series
Other publications in this report series
  • Publication
    A Metric of Global Maritime Supply Chain Disruptions
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2024-07-16) Arvis, Jean-François; Rastogi, Cordula; Rodrigue, Jean-Paul; Ulybina, Daria
    Global supply chains recently faced widespread disruptions. The COVID-19 pandemic caused major disruptions in 2021 and 2022, while in late 2023, geopolitical incidents in the Red Sea and water shortages in the Panama Canal disrupted global shipping routes. Regardless of the cause, delays, or rerouting mean that disruption diffuses at a global scale. To quantify and assess the magnitude of disruptions globally or locally, in 2021, the World Bank developed a proposed metric, the Global Supply Chain Stress Index. The index derives from Automatic Identification System tracking data. It calculates the equivalent stalled ship capacity measured in twenty-foot equivalent units), providing data at the port, country, regional, and global levels. This granular information can inform targeted interventions and contingency planning, improving the resilience of maritime infrastructure and networks. The index explains the observed surges in shipping rates during disruptions, assuming shippers’ willingness to pay for scarcer shipping slots. An increase of 1 million twenty-foot equivalent units in global stress pushes the Shanghai Containerized Freight Index up by US$2,300 per twenty-foot equivalent unit.
  • Publication
    Learning Loss as a Result of COVID-19
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2024-07-16) Asim, Salman; Bashir, Sajitha; Gera, Ravinder Casley
    School closures from COVID-19 have resulted in large learning losses, from 0.05 to 0.17 standard deviations in high income countries, equivalent to two to six months of lost learning. However, the extent of primary-level learning loss in low-income countries remains unclear, studies lack information on individual students’ learning trajectories, and most do not include students who dropped out. This paper uses representative survey data from Malawi that includes unique longitudinal data on individual students (grade 4 at baseline), including those who dropped out, at three points in time: pre-COVID; 1–12 months before the seven-month school closures; and 14–20 months after schools reopened. Across math, English, and Chichewa, the local language, the average learning loss amounts to 18 months (78 points, 0.78 standard deviations), significantly higher than the loss documented in high income contexts. Decomposing this loss, the findings show that students lost 0.25 standard deviations of existing knowledge during the closure, and a further 0.23 standard deviations in foregone learning compared to the expected trajectory had schools remained open. Further loss comes from a slowdown in learning after schools reopened, with students gaining 7 points’ less new knowledge in math per 100 days, the majority of which is not explained by increased dropout. Our findings are relevant for other low-income and lower-middle income contexts: remote learning during school closure was in general ineffectual, necessitating urgent action to remediate lost learning; and children who dropped out had the highest learning losses and now require out-of-school learning opportunities.
  • Publication
    Can Targeted Allocation of Teachers Improve Student Learning Outcomes? Evidence from Malawi
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2024-07-16) Asim, Salman; Gera, Ravinder Casley; Moreno, Martin; Wong, Kerry
    Teachers are one of the most important inputs for learning, but in many low-income countries they are poorly distributed between schools. This paper discusses the case of Malawi, which has introduced new evidence-based policies and procedures to improve the equity and efficiency of the allocation of teachers to schools. The analysis finds that adherence to these policies has been highly variable between the country’s districts, with the most successful deploying 75 percent of teachers according to the rules and the least successful just 22 percent. Using administrative data, the paper identifies the impacts on student repetition rates of reductions in pupil–qualified teacher ratios as a result of the new teachers. The findings show that schools that moved from having more than 90 pupils per qualified teacher to a lower ratio experienced reductions in lower primary school repetition rates of 2–3 percentage points. However, similar impacts on dropout are not observed.
  • Publication
    Cultivating Collaboration through Joint Participation
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2024-07-16) Friedson-Ridenour, Sophia; Pierotti, Rachael; Springer, Emily; Gebreyohannes, Alemgena
    Micronutrient deficiency, or hidden hunger, remains a significant problem affecting more than 2 billion people globally. Consuming a diet that is diverse in agricultural products is a primary way of decreasing hidden hunger. Nutrition-sensitive agriculture is recommended as a means of ensuring that investments in agriculture also translate into nutritional gains. Nutrition-sensitive agriculture is a multisectoral approach that requires coordination and cooperation across what are often gendered domains of control inside and outside the home. Agriculture is usually treated as men’s domain and nutrition women’s, with programming generally targeting recipients based on their assumed domain of control. Using evidence from a study of a video-based nutrition-sensitive agriculture program in Ethiopia, this paper provides an in-depth qualitative examination of why targeting both men and women with information on nutrition-sensitive agriculture is preferred by both female and male farmers. The findings indicate that the participation of men and women within the same household not only reduces inequalities in access to information, but also changes whether and how conversations about household production and consumption happen. Household investments in nutrition-sensitive agriculture often involve risk-taking and may require the labor of both men and women. Nutrition-sensitive agriculture interventions that provide information to both women and men ease information-sharing frictions, including those related to intrahousehold gender inequality, and encourage consensus building and the joint assessment of potential benefits and risks. The findings from this study indicate that dual targeting is important for promoting nutrition-sensitive agriculture and addressing hidden hunger because of the potential benefits related to intrahousehold collaboration.
  • Publication
    The Impact of Submarine Cables on Internet Access Price, and the Role of Competition and Regulation
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2024-07-16) Cariolle, Joël; Houngbonon, Georges Vivien; Silue, Tarna; Strusani, Davide
    Submarine cables enable international connectivity and are essential for high-speed internet access. This paper tests their potential to improve the affordability of internet access by supporting a price drop through cost savings or increased competition intensity. The empirical framework relies on a dataset that combines the capacity of submarine cables with price data on fixed and mobile internet across 150 countries over a decade. Using a two-way fixed effects estimator, the analysis finds that the expansion of submarine cables is associated with a statistically significant drop in the price of internet access, up to 14–21 percent, depending on the technology, for every doubling of the capacity of submarine cables, and with large regional disparities. These effects stem from cost savings in the short run and tend to decline over time, concomitant with a rise in domestic telecom market concentration. The analysis also finds that these effects can be enhanced by telecom regulations, especially de-jure independence of the regulator, and the regulation of network interconnection and access, shared telecom infrastructure, and competition from international players across the broadband value chain. The main findings are robust to alternative estimation strategies, including an instrumental variable and a staggered difference in differences.
Journal
Journal Volume
Journal Issue
Associated URLs
Associated content
Citations