Publication: Regulating Water Concessions : Lessons from the Buenos Aires concession
The Argentine government privatized the water and sewerage services in greater Buenos Aires by concession. The utility was sold as a single monopoly business, but bidders had to compete for the right to provide service at the lowest price. Contractual targets for service coverage implied significant investment over the life of the contract. As things have turned out, the assets were in worse shape than expected, and a renegotiation rule has allowed a tariff hike to pay for accelerated investment. The authors argue, however, that the pricing system is still flawed, producing incentive problems for investment.
“Crampes, Claude; Estache, Antonio. 1996. Regulating Water Concessions : Lessons from the Buenos Aires concession. Viewpoint: Public Policy for the Private Sector; Note No. 91. © World Bank, Washington, DC. http://openknowledge.worldbank.org/entities/publication/67e893e9-99c1-57a0-9731-ce5ede9fee3a License: CC BY 3.0 IGO.”
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PublicationSmall Business Tax Regimes(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2016-02)Simplified tax regimes for micro and small enterprises in developing countries are intended to facilitate voluntary tax compliance. However, survey evidence suggests that small business taxation based on simplified bookkeeping or turnover is sometimes perceived as too complex for microenterprises in countries with high illiteracy levels. Very simple fixed tax regimes not requiring any books or records tend to be overly popular but prone to abuse. System reforms will require more precise tailoring of the simplified regimes to their target beneficiaries, coupled with strong compliance management to detect and deter abuse. The overall objective of simplified taxation for micro and small enterprises (MSEs) in developing countries is generally to facilitate voluntary tax compliance and remove obstacles in moving toward business formalization and growth.
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