Publication: Urban Air Quality Management : Coordinating Transport, Environment, and Energy Policies in Developing Countries

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Kojima, Masami
Lovei, Magda
Transport-related air pollution is increasingly contributing to environmental health risks in many developing country cities. The social costs of poor urban quality can be significant, making this issue an immediate priority. Long-term measures for dealing with the problem include urban planning, and traffic demand management. This paper however, focuses primarily on cost-effective measures, that are feasible to implement, and that can bring measurable results in the short to medium term. There is a tendency in the environment sector, to focus narrowly on controlling emissions by importing the best available technology. Cost-effective, and sustainable solutions, however, require much broader approaches. In developing countries, improving air quality is not simply a matter of importing advanced technologies, while, choices concerning feasibility, sequencing, and timing of pollution reducing measures, have serious fiscal, and economic consequences. Thus the guiding principle for selection of strategies, should be the balancing of costs, benefits, and technical, and institutional feasibility. Monitoring, and enforcement are essential , but countries need to know the nature, and magnitude of the pollution problem, to determine the speed, and rigor with which policies should be implemented. Furthermore, pollution enforcement measures have implications on petroleum taxation, and on the tariff regime, as well as for traffic management.
Kojima, Masami; Lovei, Magda. 2001. Urban Air Quality Management : Coordinating Transport, Environment, and Energy Policies in Developing Countries. World Bank Technical Paper;No. 508. © Washington, DC: World Bank. License: CC BY 3.0 IGO.
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