Urbanization without Growth : A Not-So-Uncommon Phenomenon Fay, Marianne Opal, Charlotte 2015-02-02T20:54:04Z 2015-02-02T20:54:04Z 2000-08
dc.description.abstract To find out why African countries' experience with urbanization and sustained growth appeared to differ from that of other countries, the authors investigated the determinants of urbanization across countries over 40 years. Rather than studying individuals' decisions to migrate, they relied on macroeconomic data and cross-country comparisons. A central hypothesis of their study: that individuals move (with varying degrees of ease) in response to economic incentives and opportunities. If location incentives are distorted, so is growth. The authors find that urbanization levels are closely correlated with levels of income. But urbanization continues even during periods of negative growth, carried by its own momentum, largely a function of the level of urbanization. From that viewpoint, Africa's urbanization without growth is not a puzzle. Factors other than income that help predict differences in levels of urbanization across countries include: a) income structure; b) education; c) rural-urban wage differentials; d) ethnic tensions; and e) civil disturbances. In addition, the relationship between economic incentives and urbanization is weaker in countries with fewer civil or political liberties. Factors other than initial urbanization level that help explain the speed of urbanization include: 1) The sector from which income growth is derived; 2) ethnic tensions; 3) civil disturbances and democracy (these two slow the pace of urbanization if all else is constant); 4) rural-urban wage differentials, whether they represent an urban bias or simply lower productivity in agriculture relative to other sectors. The weak relationship that this study shows between urbanization and traditionally accepted migration factors suggests that in Africa economists are overlooking part of the urbanization story. The fact that the informal sector appears to provide a significant source of income for urban migrants, coupled with the overlap between rural and urban activities, may shed light on the nature of urbanization in Africa. en
dc.language.iso en_US
dc.publisher World Bank, Washington, DC
dc.relation.ispartofseries Policy Research Working Paper;No. 2412
dc.rights CC BY 3.0 IGO
dc.subject agglomeration economies
dc.subject central governments
dc.subject cities
dc.subject civil liberties
dc.subject civil unrest
dc.subject civil war
dc.subject country comparisons
dc.subject crime
dc.subject democracy
dc.subject democratic regimes
dc.subject economic conditions
dc.subject economic development
dc.subject economic growth
dc.subject economic incentives
dc.subject employment
dc.subject environmental degradation
dc.subject equalization
dc.subject expenditures
dc.subject growth performance
dc.subject growth rate
dc.subject health services
dc.subject housing
dc.subject housing finance
dc.subject income
dc.subject income growth
dc.subject income level
dc.subject large cities
dc.subject laws
dc.subject liberties
dc.subject low income countries
dc.subject migration
dc.subject national economy
dc.subject neighborhood
dc.subject per capita income
dc.subject political conditions
dc.subject political rights
dc.subject population density
dc.subject productivity
dc.subject public expenditures
dc.subject public investment
dc.subject public policy
dc.subject resource allocation
dc.subject roads
dc.subject rural banks
dc.subject rural dwellers
dc.subject rural population
dc.subject sanitation
dc.subject schools
dc.subject slums
dc.subject social conditions
dc.subject structural adjustment
dc.subject tax revenues
dc.subject towns
dc.subject trade unions
dc.subject transaction costs
dc.subject transport
dc.subject urban
dc.subject urban area
dc.subject urban areas
dc.subject urban bias
dc.subject urban centers
dc.subject urban development
dc.subject urban dwellers
dc.subject urban economics
dc.subject urban growth
dc.subject urban infrastructure
dc.subject urban poor
dc.subject urban population
dc.subject urbanization
dc.subject urbanization process
dc.subject wages
dc.subject urbanization
dc.subject economic growth
dc.subject income levels
dc.subject education
dc.subject rural-urban differentials
dc.subject wage differentiation
dc.subject informal sector
dc.subject urban bias
dc.subject democracy
dc.title Urbanization without Growth : A Not-So-Uncommon Phenomenon en
dspace.entity.type Publication 2000-08-31
okr.doctype Publications & Research
okr.doctype Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
okr.globalpractice Social, Urban, Rural and Resilience
okr.identifier.doi 10.1596/1813-9450-2412 WPS2412
okr.language.supported en
okr.region.administrative Africa
okr.region.geographical Africa
okr.topic Urban Development :: National Urban Development Policies & Strategies
okr.topic Urban Development :: Urban Services to the Poor
okr.topic Health, Nutrition and Population :: Public Health Promotion
okr.topic Communities and Human Settlements :: Urban Housing and Land Settlements
okr.topic Finance and Financial Sector Development :: Banks & Banking Reform
okr.topic Governance :: Governance Indicators
okr.unit Private Sector and Infrastructure, Urban Development and Transportation Division
relation.isAuthorOfPublication 2211eb84-299d-5db8-af3d-2f2e5f70af9f
relation.isSeriesOfPublication 26e071dc-b0bf-409c-b982-df2970295c87
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