State and Trends of the Carbon Market 2012 Kossoy, Alexandre Guigon, Pierre 2013-05-08T21:05:29Z 2013-05-08T21:05:29Z 2012-05
dc.description.abstract The total value of the carbon market grew by 11 percent in 2011, to $176 billion, and transaction volumes reached a new high of 10.3 billion tons of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e). This growth took place in the face of economic turbulence, growing long-term oversupply in the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) and plummeting carbon prices. By far, the largest segment of the carbon market was that of EU Allowances (EUAs), valued at $148 billion. With the end of the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol in 2012, the value of the pre-2013 primary certified emission reduction (CER), emission reduction unit (ERU) and assigned amount unit (AAU) markets declined in 2011. At the same time, the post-2012 primary Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) market increased by a robust 63 percent, to US$2 billion, despite depressed prices and limited long-term-visibility. Against this backdrop, several new domestic and regional carbon market initiatives gained traction in both developed and developing economies in 2011. Five new jurisdictions (i.e., Australia, California, Québec, Republic of Korea, and Mexico) passed legislations laying the foundation for cap-and-trade schemes. Together, these initiatives will drive substantial resources towards low-carbon investments and they have the potential to unleash a truly transformational carbon market, in support of a global solution to the climate challenge. en
dc.language.iso en_US
dc.publisher World Bank, Washington, DC
dc.rights CC BY 3.0 IGO
dc.rights.holder World Bank
dc.subject abatement
dc.subject account holder
dc.subject account holders
dc.subject Accounting
dc.subject acid
dc.subject acid production
dc.subject Air
dc.subject Allocation
dc.subject ammonia
dc.subject annual emissions
dc.subject annual greenhouse gas
dc.subject anthropogenic greenhouse
dc.subject anthropogenic greenhouse gas
dc.subject arbitrage
dc.subject asset classes
dc.subject auction
dc.subject auctions
dc.subject Average Price
dc.subject average prices
dc.subject Bank Markets
dc.subject calculation
dc.subject capital markets
dc.subject capital stock
dc.subject caps
dc.subject CARB
dc.subject carbon
dc.subject Carbon Allowance
dc.subject carbon allowances
dc.subject Carbon Capture
dc.subject carbon credits
dc.subject Carbon Dioxide
dc.subject carbon economy
dc.subject carbon exchanges
dc.subject carbon finance
dc.subject carbon leakage
dc.subject Carbon Market
dc.subject Carbon markets
dc.subject carbon offset
dc.subject Carbon Price
dc.subject carbon prices
dc.subject carbon sinks
dc.subject carbon taxes
dc.subject carbon technologies
dc.subject carbon trading
dc.subject Carbon Units
dc.subject central bank
dc.subject Certified Emission Reductions
dc.subject CH4
dc.subject Chemical Oxygen Demand
dc.subject Clean Energy
dc.subject Climate
dc.subject Climate Change
dc.subject climate change mitigation
dc.subject Climate damages
dc.subject climate economics
dc.subject climate policy
dc.subject climate science
dc.subject co
dc.subject CO2
dc.subject Coal
dc.subject Coal Mine
dc.subject colors
dc.subject combustion
dc.subject commodity markets
dc.subject conservation of forests
dc.subject cost of fuel
dc.subject credibility
dc.subject credit rating
dc.subject debt
dc.subject debt crisis
dc.subject depressed prices
dc.subject developing countries
dc.subject Development Bank
dc.subject DNA
dc.subject economic risk
dc.subject Ecosystem
dc.subject electricity
dc.subject electricity generation
dc.subject Emission
dc.subject emission allowances
dc.subject emission levels
dc.subject Emission Reduction
dc.subject Emission Reduction Project
dc.subject emission reduction target
dc.subject Emission Reduction Units
dc.subject emission reductions
dc.subject Emissions
dc.subject emissions allowances
dc.subject emissions data
dc.subject Emissions from Deforestation
dc.subject emissions reductions
dc.subject energy consumption
dc.subject Energy Efficiency
dc.subject energy efficiency measures
dc.subject Energy Market
dc.subject energy mix
dc.subject energy subsidies
dc.subject equipment
dc.subject Expenditures
dc.subject financial crisis
dc.subject financial instrument
dc.subject Financial Instruments
dc.subject financial markets
dc.subject financial support
dc.subject floor price
dc.subject Forest
dc.subject Forest Degradation
dc.subject Forestry
dc.subject forward market
dc.subject fossil fuel
dc.subject fossil fuels
dc.subject Framework Convention on Climate Change
dc.subject fraud
dc.subject free allocation
dc.subject free allowances
dc.subject freeze
dc.subject fuels
dc.subject fungible
dc.subject Futures
dc.subject Futures Exchange
dc.subject Futures market
dc.subject gases
dc.subject generation mix
dc.subject GHG
dc.subject GHGs
dc.subject global carbon market
dc.subject global emissions
dc.subject Global Markets
dc.subject Global Warming
dc.subject government policy
dc.subject Greenhouse
dc.subject Greenhouse Gas
dc.subject greenhouse gas emissions
dc.subject Greenhouse Gas Reduction
dc.subject Gross Domestic Product
dc.subject HFCs
dc.subject holding
dc.subject host country
dc.subject Hydrochlorofluorocarbon
dc.subject hydrofluorocarbons
dc.subject impacts of climate change
dc.subject Internal Rate of Return
dc.subject international credits
dc.subject International Emissions
dc.subject International Finance
dc.subject International Financial Institution
dc.subject international offsets
dc.subject Investment Bank
dc.subject investment decision
dc.subject Investment funds
dc.subject iron
dc.subject issuance
dc.subject Land Use
dc.subject Land Use Change
dc.subject Land-Use Change
dc.subject Landfill
dc.subject Landfill Gas
dc.subject legal agreement
dc.subject legal instrument
dc.subject legal obligation
dc.subject levy
dc.subject liability
dc.subject liquidity
dc.subject low-carbon
dc.subject lower demand
dc.subject lower energy consumption
dc.subject macroeconomic uncertainty
dc.subject market analyst
dc.subject market analysts
dc.subject market conditions
dc.subject market design
dc.subject market infrastructure
dc.subject Market instruments
dc.subject Market Mechanism
dc.subject market mechanisms
dc.subject Market oversight
dc.subject market participants
dc.subject market player
dc.subject market players
dc.subject market price
dc.subject market reforms
dc.subject Market value
dc.subject Marketplace
dc.subject Methane
dc.subject Monetary Fund
dc.subject N2O
dc.subject National accounts
dc.subject Nitrous Oxide
dc.subject nuclear power
dc.subject oil equivalent
dc.subject Oxygen
dc.subject Perfluorocarbon
dc.subject perfluorocarbons
dc.subject petrochemicals
dc.subject policy scenario
dc.subject portfolio
dc.subject potential demand
dc.subject power plants
dc.subject power sector
dc.subject power stations
dc.subject Present Value
dc.subject Price Floor
dc.subject price fluctuations
dc.subject Price Mechanism
dc.subject price risk
dc.subject price signal
dc.subject price support
dc.subject primary market
dc.subject private capital
dc.subject Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative
dc.subject Renewable Energy
dc.subject Reserve
dc.subject retail
dc.subject risk management
dc.subject risky assets
dc.subject sale
dc.subject sales
dc.subject scenarios
dc.subject secondary market
dc.subject secondary market price
dc.subject set aside
dc.subject SF6
dc.subject spot market
dc.subject spread
dc.subject Sulfur
dc.subject Sulfur Hexafluoride
dc.subject surplus
dc.subject surplus of allowances
dc.subject sustainable forest
dc.subject sustainable forest management
dc.subject Tax
dc.subject temperature
dc.subject total sale
dc.subject trading system
dc.subject tranche
dc.subject Transaction
dc.subject Treasury
dc.subject uncertainties
dc.subject UNEP
dc.subject Volatility
dc.subject wind
dc.subject withdrawal
dc.title State and Trends of the Carbon Market 2012 en
dspace.entity.type Publication
okr.crosscuttingsolutionarea Climate Change 2013-04-22
okr.doctype Publications & Research :: Working Paper
okr.doctype Publications & Research
okr.globalpractice Macroeconomics and Fiscal Management
okr.globalpractice Environment and Natural Resources
okr.globalpractice Finance and Markets
okr.globalpractice Finance and Markets 76837
okr.language.supported en
okr.topic Environment :: Carbon Policy and Trading
okr.topic Environment :: Climate Change Mitigation and Green House Gases
okr.topic Finance and Financial Sector Development :: Debt Markets
okr.topic Macroeconomics and Economic Growth :: Climate Change Economics
okr.topic Macroeconomics and Economic Growth :: Markets and Market Access
okr.unit Policy and Operations (SECPO)
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