Author Name Variants
Fields of Specialization
Science, technology, and innovation policy; private sector development; technology entrepreneurship; and technology transfer
Externally Hosted Work
Last updated August 23, 2023
Anwar Aridi is a senior private sector specialist in the World Bank’s Finance, Competitiveness, and Innovation (FCI) Global Practice in the East Asia and Pacific region based in Seoul, Republic of Korea. Previously, he was in the Europe and Central Asia region, based in Sofia, Bulgaria, and prior to that, in Washington, DC. He joined FCI’s Global Practice as a Young Professional in 2015. Aridi specializes in science, technology, and innovation policy; private sector development; technology entrepreneurship; and technology transfer. He previously worked as an economic and technology policy analyst at SRI International Center for Science, Technology, and Economic Development and as a junior professional associate in the World Bank’s Middle East and North Africa Country Management Unit. His latest books include Europe 4.0: Addressing the Digital Dilemma and Innovation Agencies: Cases from Developing Economies (World Bank). Aridi holds a PhD in science and technology policy from the Trachtenberg School of Public Policy and Administration at George Washington University.
Publication Search Results
Now showing 1 - 6 of 6
Publication(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2019-11-13) Aridi, Anwar ; Kapil, Natasha ; Aridi, AnwarMany high-income and developing countries have established agencies to promote innovation. This study examines the origin and evolution, organizational structure, policy interventions, delivery challenges, and evaluation mechanisms of 13 innovation agencies in developing countries and one case (SPRING in Singapore) for comparison purposes. This study does not assume that the only approach to improving innovation lies in a dedicated agency – each innovation system is governed differently and the same intervention may have very different results in different contexts. Rather, our goal is to capture how these agencies dealt with the major challenges that confront establishing an innovation agency in a developing country context, where innovation is often hampered by significant market, coordination, and institutional failures, investments in innovation tend to be limited, and the capabilities required for effective innovation are often lacking. The analysis is presented according to seven building blocks that emerged from the analysis of the cases’ patterns and dynamics as pre-requisites for the success of innovation agencies, including a clear but adaptable mission, capable staff, effective governance and management structures, diagnostic-based interventions, robust monitoring and evaluation (M&E), sustainable funding, and strategic partnerships and networks. A diagnosis of NIS gaps and global trends is required to design policy interventions.
Towards a Private Sector led Growth Model: Bosnia and Herzegovina Innovation and Entrepreneurship Assessment(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2019-04-20) Aridi, Anwar ; Ong Lopez, Anne ; Aridi, AnwarThe growth landscape of Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH) is undermined by adverse productivity developments and weak private sector development. BiH is still finding a pathway to rebalance its current public sector-led growth model to a private sector-led one. In this light, enhancing innovation and entrepreneurship (I and E) is a key priority for BiH. This report provides a comprehensive assessment of the current I and E landscape in BiH and offers a roadmap for innovation policy reforms. It showcases current I and E outcomes in BiH and provides analysis of whether current support policies and programs in BiH (including public budget allocations) address existing market failures. The report concludes that recent policy measures have not effectively addressed BiH's needs for supporting I and E, specifically in terms of access to skills, ease of business regulations, and predictability of business environment. To this end, this report offers a roadmap for policy reforms as well as suggestions for pilot programs.
Publication(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2019-12-30) Aridi, Anwar ; Petrovcic, Urska ; Aridi, AnwarWhat role does, or should competition law play in the data economy? The proliferation of data into different fields of the economy presents a tremendous opportunity for economic growth. Data permits companies to improve the quality of the products and services that they offer to consumers. It also enables companies to reduce their costs, increase their efficiency, and identify new business opportunities. Reliance on data can therefore enhance the competitiveness of firms and the economy more generally. However, there is a concern that the data economy has given rise to increasingly concentrated markets, where a small number of firms has gained disproportionate market power. Can the enforcement of competition law promote the development of a competitive data economy? This article examines the competition policy that the European Union should adopt for the data economy generally and, more specifically, for the Industry 4.010 the coming digitalization of the manufacturing process and of the industry more broadly. It explains that weakening the enforcement of competition law to facilitate the development of EU champions would be a misguided policy for the European Union. A less competitive internal market, which would necessarily result from a weaker enforcement of EU competition law, is unlikely to increase the competitiveness of EU firms in the global arena.
Publication(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2019-07-01) Aridi, Anwar ; Querejazu, Daniel ; Aridi, AnwarThis paper investigates the current state of creation and adoption of Industry 4.0 (I4.0) technologies within the Czech Republic. I4.0 technologies, which include technologies such as big data analytics, cloud computing, the Internet of Things, and advanced robotics, hold great promise for increasing the economic competitiveness of adopters. These technologies are also often discussed in terms of their potential to disrupt existing business models and value chains, particularly in the manufacturing sector. The Czech Republic presents an interesting case study for I4.0 technology creation and adoption: the country boasts one of the strongest manufacturing sectors in Europe relative to the size of its economy but suffers from low productivity and an increasingly acute labor shortage. To remain competitive in the global economy and avoid the middle-income trap, the Czech Republic has a critical need for technologies that can substitute labor through automation and increase the productivity of the existing workforce.
Publication(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2020-11-09) Hallward-Driemeier, Mary ; Nayyar, Gaurav ; Fengler, Wolfgang ; Aridi, Anwar ; Gill, Indermit ; Aridi, AnwarThis report examines the underlying economics of different types of digital technologies. It highlights what the new drivers of change are, why the dynamics with this latest round of technological change may be different, and what the distributional impacts may be within and across countries. It then examines the evidence for how different digital technologies are – or are not – contributing to competitiveness and opportunities for small and young firms, and firms in less developed areas, and what can be done about it. Europe faces a digital dilemma. European firms are particularly strong in operational technologies such as smart robotics and 3D printing. While this helps Europe's competitiveness, it also widens the divide between large and small firms, and leading and lagging regions. On the other hand, digital technologies, such as transactional technologies or matching platforms, have the greatest potential for market inclusion and convergence, but this is where Europe remains less competitive. The report lays out how Europe 4.0 is attainable. The COVID-19 (coronavirus) pandemic has highlighted the importance of the data economy — and raised the risks if the digital dilemma is not addressed. This report provides a framework, evidence and recommendations on how governments can respond. Europe has the chance to attain a dynamic and inclusive technologically enhanced future, it should take that chance.
Publication(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2023-08-21) Soh, Hoon Sahib ; Koh, Youngsun ; Aridi, Anwar ; editorsThe Republic of Korea today is a highly industrialized, global leader in innovation and technology. It is the 10th largest economy in the world and has a per capita income approaching the average of OECD countries. In the 1950s, however, it was one of the world’s poorest countries, with decidedly bleak prospects. Its transformation has made Korea a well-known case study of successful development. "Innovative Korea: Leveraging Innovation and Technology for Development" summarizes the sources of Korea’s remarkable growth and the policies and institutional reforms that made it possible. The report focuses on Korea’s successful transition from a middle-income to a high-income economy. Korea escaped from the “middle-income trap” by fundamentally transforming its growth paradigm to a more private-sector-led model emphasizing market competition, innovation, and technology. Compared to the previous emphasis on large firms and industries, the government became more focused on promoting small and medium enterprises and technology entrepreneurs. Exports expanded significantly through greater integration in global value chains. Already-high levels of human capital development were complemented by an expanded social safety net and a more integrated approach to education and training. Korea succeeded by focusing on the foundations of long-run growth, building global capabilities in innovation and technology, and adapting and evolving its growth paradigm to promote new sources of growth. Innovative Korea, jointly prepared by the World Bank and the Korea Development Institute, provides useful insights on Korea’s development story and practical lessons for public policy making.