Kose, M. Ayhan

Prospects Group, The World Bank
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International macroeconomics, International finance
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Prospects Group, The World Bank
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Last updated: April 14, 2024
Ayhan Kose is the Deputy Chief Economist of the World Bank Group and Director of the Prospects Group. He is a member of the Chief Economist’s leadership team overseeing the Bank’s analytical work, and policy and operational advice. He also leads the Bank’s work on the global macroeconomic outlook, financial flows, and commodity markets. Under his management, the Prospects Group produces the Bank’s flagship reports Global Economic Prospects and Commodity Markets Outlook, in addition to other policy and analytical publications. Prior to joining the World Bank, he was Assistant to the Director of the Research Department and Deputy Chief of the Multilateral Surveillance Division in the International Monetary Fund (IMF). He served in a wide range of roles supporting IMF’s analytical, policy, and operational work. Mr. Kose is a Nonresident Senior Fellow at the Brookings Institution, a Dean’s Fellow at the University of Virginia’s Darden School of Business, a Research Fellow at the Center for Economic Policy Research (CEPR), and a Research Associate at the Center for Applied Macroeconomics (CAMA). He taught at the University of Chicago’s Booth School of Business, INSEAD, and Brandeis International Business School. He has a Ph.D. in economics from the Tippie College of Business at the University of Iowa and a B.S. in industrial engineering from Bilkent University. A native of Turkey, Mr. Kose was born and raised in Istanbul.
Citations 6 Scopus

Publication Search Results

Now showing 1 - 10 of 38
  • Publication
    The Great Reversal: Prospects, Risks, and Policies in International Development Association (IDA) Countries
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2024-04-15) Chrimes, Tommy; Gootjes, Bram; Kose, M. Ayhan; Wheeler, Collette
    The 75 economies eligible for low-interest loans and grants from the World Bank’s International Development Association (IDA) had made notable progress against some important development objectives over the first two decades of this century. Despite this, on the eve of the COVID-19 pandemic, significant development gaps persisted, income convergence with advanced economies was slowing, and some vulnerabilities were rising. The shock of the pandemic and subsequent overlapping crises has exacerbated the challenges facing these economies and led to a reversal in development: over 2020-24, per capita incomes in half of IDA countries—the largest share since the start of this century—have been growing more slowly than those of wealthy economies. One out of three IDA countries is poorer than it was on the eve of the pandemic. Poverty remains stubbornly high, hunger has surged, and, amid fiscal constraints and rising investment needs, the development outlook could take an even bleaker turn—especially if weak growth prospects persist. IDA countries have several important demographic and resource advantages that could—if leveraged effectively—help close development gaps. Reaping the benefits of their advantages and meeting investment needs will require them to undertake comprehensive policy measures to bolster fiscal and monetary frameworks, enhance human capital development, and improve the quality of institutions. These policies should be complemented with significant and consistent international financial support as well as strong cooperation on global policy issues.
  • Publication
    Falling Long-Term Growth Prospects: Trends, Expectations, and Policies
    (World Bank : Washington, DC, 2024-02-01) Kose, M. Ayhan; Ohnsorge, Franziska
    A structural growth slowdown is underway across the world: at current trends, the global potential growth rate is expected to fall to a three-decade low over the remainder of the 2020s. Nearly all the forces that have powered growth and prosperity since the early 1990s have weakened, not only because of a series of shocks to the global economy over the past three years. A persistent and broad-based decline in long-term growth prospects imperils the ability of emerging market and developing economies to combat poverty, tackle climate change, and meet other key development objectives. These challenges call for an ambitious policy response at the national and global levels. This book presents the first detailed analysis of the growth slowdown and a rich menu of policy options to deliver better growth outcomes.
  • Publication
    What Explains Global Inflation
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2023-12-21) Ha, Jongrim; Kose, M. Ayhan; Ohnsorge, Franziska; Yilmazkuday, Hakan
    This paper examines the drivers of fluctuations in global inflation, defined as a common factor across monthly headline consumer price index (CPI) inflation in G7 countries, over the past half-century. It estimates a Factor-Augmented Vector Autoregression model where a wide range of shocks, including global demand, supply, oil price, and interest rate shocks, are identified through narrative sign restrictions motivated by the predictions of a simple dynamic general equilibrium model. The authors report three main results. First, oil price shocks followed by global demand shocks explained the lion’s share of variation in global inflation. Second, the contribution of global demand and oil price shocks increased over time, from 56 percent during 1970–1985 to 65 percent during 2001–2022, whereas the importance of global supply shocks declined. Since the pandemic, global demand and oil price shocks have accounted for most of the variation in global inflation. Finally, oil price shocks played a much smaller role in global core CPI inflation variation, for which global supply shocks were the main source of variation. These results are robust to various sensitivity exercises, including alternative definitions of global variables, different samples of countries, and additional narrative restrictions.
  • Publication
    Understanding the Global Drivers of Inflation: How Important Are Oil Prices?
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2023-01) Ha, Jongrim; Kose, M. Ayhan; Ohnsorge, Franziska; Yilmazkuday, Hakan
    This paper examines the global drivers of inflation in 55 countries over 1970–2022. The paper estimates a Factor-Augmented Vector Autoregression model for each country and assess the importance of several global (demand, supply, and oil price) and domestic shocks. It reports three main results. First, global shocks have explained about 26 percent of inflation variation in a typical economy. Oil price shocks accounted for only about 4 percent of inflation variation, but they had a statistically significant impact on inflation in three-quarters of the countries. Second, global shocks have become more important in driving inflation variation over time. The share of inflation variance caused by oil price shocks increased from 4 percent prior to 2000 to roughly 9 percent during 2001–22. They also accounted for some of the steep runup in inflation between mid-2021 and mid-2022. Third, oil price shocks tended to contribute significantly more to inflation variation in advanced economies, countries with stronger global trade and financial linkages, commodity importers, net energy importers, countries without inflation-targeting regimes, and countries with pegged exchange rate regimes. The headline results are robust to a wide range of exercises—including alternative measures of global factors and oil prices—and aggregation of countries.
  • Publication
    What Types of Capital Flows Help Improve International Risk Sharing?
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-11) Islamaj, Ergys; Kose, M. Ayhan
    Cross-border capital flows are expected to lead to increased international risk sharing by facilitating borrowing and lending in global financial markets. This paper examines risk-sharing outcomes of various types of capital flows (foreign direct investment, portfolio equity, debt, remittance, and aid flows) in a large sample of emerging market and developing economies. The results suggest that remittances and aid flows are associated with increased international risk sharing. Other types of capital flows are not consistently correlated with better risk-sharing outcomes. These findings are robust to the use of different econometric specifications, country-specific characteristics, and other controls.
  • Publication
    What Has Been the Impact of COVID-19 on Debt? Turning a Wave into a Tsunami
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-11) Kose, M. Ayhan; Nagle, Peter; Ohnsorge, Franziska; Sugawara, Naotaka
    This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of the impact of COVID-19 on debt, puts recent debt developments and prospects in historical context, and analyzes new policy challenges associated with debt resolution. The paper reports three main results. First, even before the pandemic, a rapid buildup of debt in emerging market and developing economies—dubbed the “fourth wave” of debt—had been underway. Because of the sharp increase in debt during the pandemic-induced global recession of 2020, the fourth wave of debt has turned into a tsunami and become even more dangerous. Second, five years after past global recessions, global government debt continued to increase. In light of this historical record, and given large financing gaps and significant investment needs in many countries, debt levels will likely continue to rise in the near future. Third, debt resolution has become more complicated because of a highly fragmented creditor base, a lack of transparency in debt reporting, and a legacy stock of government debt without collective action clauses. National policy makers and the global community need to act rapidly and forcefully ensure that the fourth wave does not end with a string of debt crises in emerging market and developing economies as earlier debt waves did.
  • Publication
    A Mountain of Debt: Navigating the Legacy of the Pandemic
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-10) Kose, M. Ayhan; Ohnsorge, Franziska; Sugawara, Naotaka
    The COVID-19 pandemic has triggered a massive increase in global debt levels and exacerbated the trade-offs between the benefits and costs of accumulating government debt. This paper examines these trade-offs by putting the recent debt boom into a historical context. It reports three major findings. First, during the 2020 global recession, both global government and private debt levels rose to record highs, and at their fastest single-year pace, in five decades. Second, the debt-financed, massive fiscal support programs implemented during the pandemic supported activity and illustrated the benefits of accumulating debt. However, as the recovery gains traction, the balance of benefits and costs of debt accumulation could increasingly tilt toward costs. Third, more than two-thirds of emerging market and developing economies are currently in government debt booms. On average, the current booms have already lasted three years longer, and are accompanied by a considerably larger fiscal deterioration, than earlier booms. About half of the earlier debt booms were associated with financial crises in emerging market and developing economies.
  • Publication
    The Aftermath of Debt Surges
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-09) Kose, M. Ayhan; Ohnsorge, Franziska
    Debt in emerging market and developing economies (EMDEs) is at its highest level in half a century. In about nine out of 10 EMDEs, debt is higher now than it was in 2010 and, in half of the EMDEs, debt is more than 30 percentage points of gross domestic product higher. Historically, elevated debt levels increased the incidence of debt distress, particularly in EMDEs and particularly when financial market conditions turned less benign. This paper reviews an encompassing menu of options that have, in the past, helped lower debt burdens. Specifically, it examines orthodox options (enhancing growth, fiscal consolidation, privatization, and wealth taxation) and heterodox options (inflation, financial repression, debt default and restructuring). The mix of feasible options depends on country characteristics and the type of debt. However, none of these options comes without political, economic, and social costs. Some options may ultimately be ineffective unless vigorously implemented. Policy reversals in difficult times have been common. The challenges associated with debt reduction raise questions of global governance, including to what extent advanced economies can cast their net wider to cushion prospective shocks to EMDEs.
  • Publication
    One-Stop Source: A Global Database of Inflation
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-07) Ha, Jongrim; Kose, M. Ayhan; Ohnsorge, Franziska
    This paper introduces a global database that contains inflation series: (i) for a wide range of inflation measures (headline, food, energy, and core consumer price inflation; producer price inflation; and gross domestic product deflator changes); (ii) at multiple frequencies (monthly, quarterly and annual) for an extended period (1970–2021); and (iii) for a large number (up to 196) of countries. As it doubles the number of observations over the next-largest publicly available sources, the database constitutes a comprehensive, single source for inflation series. The paper illustrates the potential use of the database with three applications. First, it studies the evolution of inflation since 1970 and document the broad-based disinflation around the world over the past half-century, with global consumer price inflation down from a peak of roughly 17 percent in 1974 to 2.5 percent in 2020. Second, it examines the behavior of inflation during global recessions. Global inflation fell sharply (on average by 0.9 percentage points) in the year to the trough of global recessions and continued to decline even as recoveries got underway. In 2020, inflation declined less, and more briefly, than in any of the previous four global recessions over the past 50 years. Third, the paper analyzes the role of common factors in explaining movements in different measures of inflation. While, across all inflation measures, inflation synchronization has risen since the early 2000s, it has been much higher for inflation measures that involve a larger share of tradable goods.
  • Publication
    A Decade After the Global Recession: Lessons and Challenges for Emerging and Developing Economies
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2021-03-18) Kose, M. Ayhan; Ohnsorge, Franziska; Kose, M. Ayhan; Ohnsorge, Franziska; Arteta, Carlos; Celik, Sinem Kilic; Ha, Jongrim; Kasyanenko, Sergiy; Koh, Wee Chian; Lakatos, Csilla; Ruch, Franz Ulrich; Sugawara, Naotaka; Taskin, Temel; Terrones, Marco E.; Ye, Lei Sandy; Yu, Shu
    This year marks the tenth anniversary of the 2009 global recession. Most emerging market and developing economies weathered the global recession relatively well. However, following a short-lived initial rebound in activity in 2010, the global economy and, especially, emerging market and developing economies, have suffered a decade of weak growth despite unprecedented monetary policy accommodation and several rounds of fiscal stimulus in major economies. A Decade After the Global Recession provides the first comprehensive stock-taking of the decade since the global recession for emerging market and developing economies. It reviews the experience of emerging market and developing economies during and after the recession. Many of these economies have now become more vulnerable to economic shocks. The study discusses lessons from the global recession and policy options for these economies to strengthen growth and be prepared should another global downturn occur.