Digital Development Unit, The World Bank
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Fields of Specialization
Information and Communication Technology, Internet economics
Digital Development Unit, The World Bank
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Last updated January 31, 2023
Dr. Tim Kelly is a Lead Digital Development Specialist, based in Nairobi. He is the editor of this report and the overall IC4D series. He worked previously at OECD and ITU having joined the Bank in 2008. His other WBG publications include the policy chapter in the 2016 World Development Report, Maximizing Mobile and ICTs for post-conflict reconstruction, as well as the Broadband Strategies Handbook (with Carlo Rossotto). In addition to his analytical work and technical assistance, he is also co-task-term leader for digital development investment lending programs in Comoros, Ghana, Malawi, Niger, Tanzania and Somalia.
Publication Search Results
Now showing 1 - 10 of 10
Publication(World Bank, 2010) Kim, Yongsoo ; Kelly, Tim ; Raja, SiddharthaThis book suggests an ecosystem approach to broadband policy that could help in the design of strategies, policies, and programs that support network expansion, have the potential to transform economies, improve the quality and range of services, enable application development, and broaden adoption among users. To identify emerging best practices to nurture this ecosystem, this volume analyzes the Republic of Korea and other leading broadband markets. It identifies three building blocks to support the growth of the broadband ecosystem: defining visionary but flexible strategies, using competition to promote market growth, and facilitating demand. An important but often neglected building block is demand facilitation. This includes raising awareness about the benefits of broadband and improving affordability and accessibility for the largest number of users. Successful countries have often focused on creating a suite of useful applications that increase the relevance of broadband to the widest base of users. Programs to mainstream information and communication technology (ICT) use in education, health, or government have been common.
Publication(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2012-03-16) Kelly, Tim ; Rossotto, Carlo MariaThe handbook consists of seven chapters and two appendixes that look at how broadband is defined, why it is important, and how its development can be encouraged. Throughout the handbook, broadband is viewed as an ecosystem consisting of supply and demand components, both of which are equally important if the expansion of broadband networks and services is to be successful. In addressing the challenges and opportunities to which broadband gives rise, the handbook discusses the policies and strategies that government officials and others should consider when developing broadband plans, including what legal and regulatory issues to address, what broadband technologies to choose, how to facilitate universal broadband access, and how to generate demand for broadband services and applications. Chapter one, 'building broadband,' introduces the concepts of broadband by defining the term 'broadband' more conventionally (that is, speed or functionality) as well as explaining how this handbook seeks to define the term as broadband comes to be seen as an enabling platform. Chapter two, 'policy approaches to promoting broadband development,' identifies the issues that governments and the private sector will face when developing policies and programs to support broadband development. Chapter three, 'law and regulation in a broadband world,' discusses the key policies and regulatory trends that policy makers and regulators are considering to foster broadband. Chapter four, 'extending universal broadband access and use,' discusses what roles governments should play in promoting universal broadband access when market mechanisms do not meet goals for broadband access and use on their own. Chapter five, 'technologies to support deployment of broadband infrastructure,' focuses on the supply side of the broadband ecosystem. It describes the various wireline and wireless technologies now being used to build out broadband infrastructure, including examples of broadband deployments throughout the world. Chapter six, 'driving demand for broadband networks and services,' recognizes that, although supply-side issues are important, simply building networks do not guarantee that they will be used or used most effectively. Chapter seven, 'global footprints: stories from and for the developing world,' addresses the main challenges that developing countries face in deploying broadband networks, including underdeveloped infrastructure, low income, significant differences between rural and urban areas, constrained inter- and intra-modal competition, and weaknesses in regulatory and legal frameworks.
Connecting to Work : How Information and Communication Technologies Could Help Expand Employment Opportunities(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2013-09) Raja, Siddhartha ; Imaizumi, Saori ; Kelly, Tim ; Narimatsu, Junko ; Paradi-Guilford, CeciliaInformation and communication technology (ICT) has grown as a sector and now employs millions of people worldwide. The proliferation of ICTs has also helped digitize how people find and do work. The world will need to create over 600 million jobs by 2030 for unemployment to remain at current levels. ICT-enabled employment may help address some of this problem both by creating jobs in the ICT sector and by helping to make labor markets more inclusive, innovative, flexible, and transparent. What can governments do to prepare for these changes and maximize employment opportunities? This paper is a first step in an effort by the World Bank to understand how ICTs are shaping, changing, and transforming labor markets. It explores how governments and other stakeholders might respond to leverage the growth of ICTs to help increase employment opportunities. This paper is structured as follows: section 1 serves as an introduction; section 2 defines the scope, focusing on the types of employment opportunities due to ICT as a sector and as a tool; section 3 considers the impact of the ICT sector on software programming, IT services, and telecommunications; section 4 describes how ICTs as tools empower and include more workers in labor markets; section 5 analyzes the challenges and risks that appear alongside these opportunities; section 6 discusses human capital, infrastructure, financial, regulatory, and social systems that will enable ICT in employment; and section 7 identifies strategic themes for governments to consider as they maximize the gains from ICT's increasing role in the world of work.
Publication(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2014-06) Haddad, Ryan ; Kelly, Tim ; Leinonen, Teemu ; Saarinen, VesaThe objective of this report is to examine the potential of locational data for the 'science of delivery' in the field of development. The 'science of delivery' is a term popularized by the World Bank President, Jim Yong Kim, and refers to using evidence-based experimentation to improve development outcomes (Walji, 2013). In this context, locational data is a new tool that is starting to be used in a variety of development fields including health, education, disaster risk management, traffic planning etc. this broad introduction to the topic in chapter one, the next chapter explores the technology behind locational data. Chapter three presents the methodology followed in this research and chapter four, which is the heart of this report, then presents a series of mini case studies of how it is actually being used in a representative sample of different development fields. This is the 'evidence-based experimentation' which can be harnessed to improve the 'science of delivery', and examples of both active and passive collection of locational data are presented. Finally, chapter five examines, in broader terms, the longer term potential of locational data as a development tool, once smartphone ownership becomes more widespread.
Publication(World Bank, Washington, DC, and African Development Bank, Tunis, 2012-09) Yonazi, Enock ; Kelly, Tim ; Halewood, Naomi ; Blackman, Colin ; Yonazi, Enock ; Kelly, Tim ; Halewood, Naomi ; Blackman, ColinThis new flagship report for the eTransform Africa Project, produced by the World Bank and the African Development Bank, with the support of the African Union, identifies best practice in the use of Information and communication technologies (ICTs) in key sectors of the African economy. Under the theme transformation-ready, the growing contribution of ICTs to agriculture, climate change adaptation, education, financial services, government services, and health is explored. In addition, the report highlights the role of ICTs in enhancing African regional trade and integration as well as the need to build a competitive ICT industry to boost innovation, job creation, and the export potential of African companies.
Publication(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2016-01) Kelly, Tim ; Kemei, ChristopherCommunications networks underpin regional and global trade. This is particularly true in East Africa where mobile phones are plentiful but postal services are virtually non-existent and crossborder road and railway links are subject to the vagaries of adverse environmental conditions. The countries of the East African Community (EAC) made a joint commitment in 2014 to create one network area (ONA) for the five economies of the EAC (Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda), with the benefits also being extended to South Sudan. Specifically, for cross-border traffic originating in those countries, rates have been capped, mobile roaming charges eliminated and SIIT abolished.
Publication(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2015-11) Marino Garcia, Jose ; Kelly, TimInfrastructure sharing is one of the main trends in broadband infrastructure deployment. In developing countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, there is a trend for governments to back infrastructure sharing projects as a way to reduce costs in network deployments, expand coverage, reduce the rural-urban digital divide, and accelerate broadband take-up. Traditional infrastructure sharing models, such as regulated access to the so-called “last-mile” network or site sharing agreements among mobile operators, have given way in recent times to new designs. The mutualisation model, where a common facility is operated by all market participants, and the cooperative model, where the telecommunication infrastructure is housed or jointly constructed with other linear infrastructures, are the two most popular designs.
Publication(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2017-03-07) Kelly, Tim ; Liaplina, Aleksandra ; Tan, Shawn W. ; Winkler, HernanFrom East to West, the economies of Europe and Central Asia (ECA) are not taking full advantage of the internet to foster economic growth and job creation. The residents of Central Asia and the South Caucasus pay some of the highest prices in the world for internet connections that are slow and unreliable. In contrast, Europe enjoys some of the world’s fastest and affordable internet services. However, its firms and individuals are not fully exploiting the internet to achieve higher productivity growth as well as more and better jobs. Reaping Digital Dividends investigates the barriers that are holding back the broader adoption of the internet in ECA. The report identifies the main bottlenecks and provides policy recommendations tailored to economies at varying levels of digital development. It concludes that policies to increase internet access are necessary but not sufficient. Policies to foster competition, international trade and skills supply, as well as adapting regulations to the changing business environment and labor markets, will also be necessary. In other words, Reaping Digital Dividends not only requires better connectivity, but also complementary factors that allow governments, firms and individuals to make the most out of it.
Publication(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2016-01) Kelly, Tim ; Firestone, RachelDigital technologies have spread rapidly. Digital dividends—the broader development benefits from using these technologies—have not. Digital technologies to benefit everyone everywhere requires improving the “analog” complements to digital investments—by strengthening regulations that ensure competition among businesses, by adapting workers’ skills to the demands of the new economy, and by ensuring that institutions are accountable. Inclusion, efficiency, innovation are the main mechanisms for the internet to promote development. How can these mechanisms be leveraged to promote Africa’s development? The paper tracks some 117 Tech Hubs across Africa, many of which have been created in the last few years. The paper looks at the patterns of origin by which Tech Hubs are created, why they have a high failure rate, and what makes for success.
Publication(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2014-01-29) Kelly, Tim ; Souter, DavidIn this summary report and a series of country case studies, infoDev is exploring the transformative role that Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) can have in post-conflict nations during the process of reconstruction. The case studies look at countries at different stages of post-conflict reconstruction in Afghanistan, Liberia, Rwanda and Timor-Leste, and post-revolution in Tunisia. The report examines how policy-makers, the donor community, and the private sector have prioritized and sequenced ICT initiatives in the aftermath of conflict. In addition, the report proposes a conceptual framework to understand how ICTs can contribute to improving service delivery and assisting with nation-building. The opening chapter of the report gives an overview of the relationship between conflict, reconstruction and the role of ICTs. It builds on experience within the Bank as well as on a wide range of practitioner, academic and other literature. The second chapter seeks to establish a framework for understanding the ways in which ICTs interact with societies in transition from violence to stability, and for leveraging their potential to further that transition. The roots of this lie in understanding two fields of study, policy and practice: • analysis of conflict and post-conflict reconstruction, and • analysis of ICTs and the development of an information society. Chapter three then analyses the relationship between these two fields and proposes a framework for analysis and policy development. The final chapter makes a number of recommendations to the World Bank Group, to other donors and development actors, as well as to the governments of countries emerging from violent conflict, and suggests areas for further research.