Mayer, Kristy

South Asia Sustainable Development
Profile Picture
Author Name Variants
Fields of Specialization
Electricity tariffs and subsidies; electricity sector regulation; electricity system financial modeling; energy efficiency
South Asia Sustainable Development
Externally Hosted Work
Contact Information
Last updated: January 31, 2023
Kristy Mayer is an Energy Economist in the World Bank’s Department for Sustainable Development for South Asia. She focuses on electricity tariffs and subsidies, electricity sector regulation, electricity system financial modeling, and energy efficiency. At the World Bank, she has worked on both operations and analytic assignments in South Asia. She has also worked at the Federal Reserve Bank of New York and at the U.S. Department of the Treasury. Ms. Mayer has an M.P.A. in Economic Policy from Princeton University and a B.A. in Economics from New York University.

Publication Search Results

Now showing 1 - 5 of 5
  • Publication
    Exploring a Low-Carbon Development Path for Vietnam
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2016) Audinet, Pierre; Singh, Bipul; Suphachalasai, Suphachol; Makumbe, Pedzi; Mayer, Kristy
    Bringing together a large set of data and building on two years of consultations in Vietnam with Government counterparts, research organizations, state-owned enterprises, the private sector, and the country’s international development partners, Exploring a Low-Carbon Development Path for Vietnam shows that achieving low-carbon development in Vietnam is both beneficial and feasible. To do so, this book delineates immediate and concrete policy guidance for the Government’s consideration to lower the country’s greenhouse gas emission trajectory. Based on a thorough data modeling effort, this book brings to light new data to formulate two scenarios that analyze Vietnam’s options up to the year 2030: a business-as-usual scenario and a low-carbon development scenario for the key carbon-emitting sectors of Vietnam. This book is unique in that it brings together and presents data on multiple sectors of Vietnam’s economy, making this information available for future reference. The effort is the result of collaboration with the Government of Vietnam as part of the Vietnam Low Carbon Options Assessment technical assistance. By highlighting several economic opportunities and clarifying the issues at hand, this work constitutes a milestone in this complex debate and should help all stakeholders tasked with designing the policies and measures to address the attendant challenges.
  • Publication
    Elite Capture : Residential Tariff Subsidies in India
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2015) Mayer, Kristy; Banerjee, Sudeshna Ghosh
    India - home to one of the world's largest populations without electricity access - has set the ambitious goal of achieving universal electrification by 2017. 311 million people, a quarter of its population, remains without power, despite substantial efforts to increased affordable access for the poor. This study focuses on India's residential electricity subsidies, as viewed through a poverty lens. Addressing these issues is especially urgent since the residential electricity sector accounts for nearly a quarter of India's total electricity consumption. Comparison of two survey rounds (2004/05 and 2009/10) was used to assess changes in electricity consumption over time. The study approach analyzed subsidy distribution by both below poverty line (BPL) and above poverty line (APL) grouping, as well as income quintile, to allow for the wide variation in poverty rates states. The key findings in this study are that 87 percent of subsidy payments go to APL households instead of to the poor, and over half of subsidy payments are directed to the richest two-fifths of households. Furthermore, these estimates are conservative because they assume that BPL and APL households are accurately identified. Because APL households tend to consume more electricity, subsidies are skewed toward the upper quintiles. The major driver of these outcomes is tariff design. Few states have highly concessional BPL tariffs; in most, all households are eligible for a subsidy on at least a portion of their monthly electricity consumption. Combined with the fact that the poorest households consume relatively small amounts of electricity means that wealthier consumers with electricity access are typically eligible for just as much, if not more, subsidy as poorer ones. India's states have a variety of available options for improving their subsidy performance. Certain states model good practices that other states could consider adopting, for example, Punjab, Sikkim, Chattisgarh, and others. States may consider four model tariff structures that meet the twin, medium-term policy goals of high subsidy targeting and low cost. These are (i) creating BPL tariff schedules and eliminating subsidies from other schedules, (ii) delivering subsidies through cash transfers instead of tariffs, (iii) creating a volume differentiated tariff (VDT), and (iv) creating a lifeline tariff and removing subsidies from other tariffs.
  • Publication
    Power for All : Electricity Access Challenge in India
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2015) Banerjee, Sudeshna Ghosh; Singh, Bipul; Mayer, Kristy; Samad, Hussain
    India has led the developing world in addressing rural energy problems. By late 2012, the national electricity grid had reached 92 percent of India s rural villages, about 880 million people. In more remote areas and those with geographically difficult terrain, where grid extension is not economically viable, off-grid solutions using renewable-energy sources for electricity generation and distribution have been promoted. The positive results of the country s rural energy policies and institutions have contributed greatly to reducing the number of people globally who remain without electricity access. Yet, owing mainly to its large population, India has by far the world s largest number of households without electricity. More than one-quarter of its population or about 311 million people, the vast majority of whom live in poorer rural areas, still lack an electricity connection; less than half of all households in the poorest income group have electricity. Among households with electricity service, hundreds of millions lack reliable power supply.
  • Publication
    Governance of Indian State Power Utilities : An Ongoing Journey
    (Washington, DC: World Bank Group, 2014-09-25) Pargal, Sheoli; Mayer, Kristy
    By the late 1990s, the technical and financial performance of the power sector in India had deteriorated to the point where the Government of India had to step in to bail out the state utilities, almost all of which were vertically integrated state electricity boards (SEBs). Considering that the dismal performance of state utilities reflected internal and external shortfalls in governance, the new Electricity Act of 2003 (EA 2003) mandated the unbundling and corporatization of the SEBs, along with the establishment of independent regulators. This was expected to bring about a more accountable and commercial performance culture, with concomitant results in improved utility performance. The rest of this review is organized as follows. Chapter two summarizes the institutional context and relevant developments over the past two decades. Chapter three focuses on the corporate governance agenda adopted by the government and its implementation, specifically relating to the structure and functioning of utility boards of directors. Chapter four reviews SERC regulatory governance. Chapter five analyzes the correlation between key indicators of the quality of regulatory and corporate governance and utility financial performance. And chapter six concludes.
  • Publication
    Reforming Electricity Subsidies in Pakistan : Measures to Protect the Poor
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2014-06-06) Walker, Thomas; Sahin, Sebnem; Saqib, Mohammad; Mayer, Kristy
    As part of its energy sector reforms, the Government of Pakistan plans to reduce spending on electricity subsidies to 0.3-0.4 percent of gross domestic product (GDP) by mid-2016. The reforms will alleviate a major constraint on the government's budget. However, they will necessitate increases in the price of electricity, which have the potential to measurably reduce the welfare of the poor. The government will need to carefully design the price increases and provide associated compensation to avoid this outcome. This paper demonstrates that that it is possible for the government to protect the poor against most of the costs of the reform while at the same time improving the targeting of remaining subsidy expenditures. Measures that can be taken include targeting subsidies based on poverty scores and providing targeted cash compensation to poor households. The authors illustrate how these measures can be implemented, and estimate their associated welfare impacts.