The World Bank Open Knowledge Repository

The World Bank is the largest single source of development knowledge. The World Bank Open Knowledge Repository (OKR) is The World Bank’s official open access repository for its research outputs and knowledge products.

 

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Total publications: 36,794

Recently Added

  • Publication
    Maldives Country Environmental Analysis: Towards a More Sustainable and Resilient Blue Economy
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2024-02-20) World Bank
    Maldives’ past development path has led to significant improvements in physical capital (infrastructure and related services), and human capital (such as health and education). Over recent decades, the Maldives has witnessed remarkable economic growth. The nation doubled its real income per capita within a 20-year period, transitioned from low to middle-income status, and substantially reduced poverty. This economic growth path was complemented by considerable advancements in infrastructure, including developments in roads, harbors, and ports, as well as ensuring wider access to essential utilities like electricity, water, sanitation, and the internet. From 1966 to 2022, the Maldives inaugurated 17 airports and, achieved universal electricity access by 2014 (from 84 percent in 2000), showcasing its significant growth in produced capital. The country’s human capital has also seen marked progress, with notable achievements in key indicators within education and healthcare. For instance, life expectancy more than doubled from 1960 to 2020 and child mortality and maternal mortality drastically decreased. On the education side, educational attainment has significantly increased over the last decades and more than 9 in 10 people are literate in English. Maldives’ past development path has placed pressure on its blue natural capital (marine and coastal ecosystems). In addition to the cost to natural capital, there has also been a deterioration in fiscal and debt stability, due in parts to the financing of the infrastructure investments. Environmental degradation threatens key economic pillars like tourism and fishing. Moreover, natural capital is the first line of defense against disasters and climate change, especially sea level rise. Against this backdrop, the CEA of the Maldives documents the main sustainable natural resource and environmental management challenges and provides recommendations for transitioning to a more sustainable, resilient, and inclusive Blue Economy.
  • Publication
    Namibia Agriculture Disaster Risk Finance and Insurance Diagnostic
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2024-02-20) Nair, Ajai; Maher, Barry; Ndlovu, Qhelile; Stoppa, Andrea; Hoveka, Chris
    This diagnostic report was prepared in response to a technical assistance request from the Government of the Republic of Namibia (GRN) to support the design and implementation of an index-based agriculture insurance program targeting small-scale farmers. Based on initial consultations with the Namibia Financial Institutions Supervisory Authority (NAMFISA), the nonbank financial regulator and lead counterpart, it was agreed to expand the scope of the diagnostic to include disaster risk finance (DRF), but still with a focus on the agriculture sector. This was done given both GRN’s interest in protecting both group of farmers and the increasing consensus that agriculture insurance programs, particularly those that focus on smallholders, are best designed within a broader framework of DRF. This is the case since only smallholder farmers linked to the market can be reached effectively through agriculture insurance programs, while subsistence farmers would need to be protected using other instruments. Further, even among smallholders who can be reached through agriculture insurance, some risks cannot be viably transferred to agriculture insurance markets. The report is structured as follows: chapter 1 presents an overview of the macro- and socioeconomic environment, financial sector, agriculture sector, and agriculture finance landscape in Namibia. Chapter 2 presents an overview of DRF, Namibia’s exposure to disasters, particularly for the agriculture sector, and their impact and discusses Namibia’s institutional framework and current approach to DRF. Chapter 3 presents an introduction of agriculture insurance, the agriculture insurance landscape in Namibia, and the diagnostic’s findings. Lastly, chapter 4 presents the diagnostic’s recommendations and suggested next steps.
  • Publication
    Ukraine - Third Rapid Damage and Needs Assessment (RDNA3), February 2022 – December 2023
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2024-02-20) World Bank; Government of Ukraine; European Union; United Nations
    This third Rapid Damage and Needs Assessment (RDNA3)—undertaken jointly by theWorld Bank, the Government of Ukraine, the European Commission, and the United Nations and supported by other partners—takes stock of almost two years of the ongoing war, estimating damage and losses along with recovery and reconstruction needs for 10 years. Beyond physical and financial impacts that are more readily quantified, the RDNA3 provides a qualitative description of how people’s lives havebeen dramatically altered since the invasion. RDNA3 builds on the previous two Rapid Damage and Needs Assessments (RDNA1 and RDNA2), which respectively covered the initial 3 and 12 months of the war.
  • Publication
    Madagascar Poverty and Equity Assessment, February 2024: Navigating Two Decades of High Poverty and Charting a Course for Change in Madagascar
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2024-02-20) World Bank
    This report provides an account of the evolution of poverty and living conditions in the decade 2012- 2022. It finds that at the national level monetary poverty essentially stagnated while urban poverty, admittedly a much smaller in absolute and relative terms, dramatically increased. In 2022, monetary poverty affected about 75 percent of the population, a share slightly above the 73 percent in 2012. Rural poverty remained roughly unchanged at about 80 percent of the rural population, but urban poverty increased from 42 to 56 percent over the decade. The increase in poverty was especially dramatic in secondary cities, where poverty increased from 46 to 61 percent (chapter 1). A closer look at the drivers of poverty reveals that the trends of the last decade are explained by market and governance failures, climatic shocks and the COVID pandemic. Structurally, stubbornly high rural poverty is the legacy of long-term infrastructure underinvestment, isolation, and low internal demand (World Bank Group, 2022). But since 2013, this structural failure to launch has also affected urban employment and living conditions as private investment has persistently declined and competition was suffocated by special interests. Moreover, the COVID pandemic, which caused an exceedingly long border closure and wiped out tourism revenues until mid-2022, and a repeated string of cyclones wreaked havoc on the service economy, destroying as many as a quarter of jobs and slashing urban incomes (chapter 3). About three-quarters of the population suffers from food insecurity, and this share has remained broadly unchanged for a decade or more. Most households, especially in rural areas, lack access to reliable electricity, safe water, or adequate sanitation. Access to healthcare is inadequate while high fertility, teenage pregnancy (about one-third of girls 15-19 is a mother already) and low education completion (only about half of all children complete primary school) erode future human capital (chapter 4). Climate resilience is a cross-cutting challenge. Madagascar is highly vulnerable to extreme weather events such as tropical cyclones, heavy rains, droughts, and heatwaves (chapter 5).
  • Publication
    Guidance Note on Uzbekistan Green Taxonomy
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2024-02-20) World Bank
    This Guidance Note serves to support the government of Uzbekistan in the design of a national Green Taxonomy. A green taxonomy sets out rules for classifying environmentally sustainable activities and can be instrumental inthe transition to a Green Economy by guiding policies and public resource flows, and influencing the private sector’s investment response. The Guidance Note discusses methodological choices for the taxonomy and their policy implications, reviews existing international practices, and recommends a model taxonomy and roadmap for further development of the taxonomy. A key message in the note is the importance of setting clear strategic goals that will inform the selection of the taxonomy’s environmental objectives and its other features. Also discussed are theinstitutional arrangements to coordinate the actions and inputs of multiple stakeholders during the development process of the taxonomy, and the importance of strong oversight and consistent enforcement of taxonomy rules by a competent regulatory body.