Publication: Informal Microenterprises in Senegal: Performance Outcomes and Possible Avenues to Boost Productivity and Jobs
Link to Data Set
“Atiyas, İzak; Dutz, Mark A.. 2022. Informal Microenterprises in Senegal: Performance Outcomes and Possible Avenues to Boost Productivity and Jobs. Policy Research Working Paper;10111. © Washington, DC : World Bank. http://hdl.handle.net/10986/37634 License: CC BY 3.0 IGO.”
Other publications in this report series
PublicationIs US Trade Policy Reshaping Global Supply Chains ?(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2023-11-01)This paper examines the reshaping of supply chains using detailed US 10-digit import data (tariff-line level) between 2017 and 2022. The results show that while US-China decoupling in bilateral trade is real, supply chains remain intertwined with China. Over the period, China’s share of US imports fell from 22 to 16 percent. The paper shows that the decline is due to US tariffs. US imports from China are being replaced with imports from large developing countries with revealed comparative advantage in a product. Countries replacing China tend to be deeply integrated into China’s supply chains and are experiencing faster import growth from China, especially in strategic industries. Put differently, to displace China on the export side, countries must embrace China’s supply chains. Within products, the reorientation of trade is consistent with a “China + 1” strategy, as opposed to diversified sourcing across multiple countries. There is some evidence of nearshoring, but it is exclusive to border nations, and there is no consistent evidence of reshoring. Despite the significant reshaping, China remained the top supplier of imported goods to the US in 2022.
PublicationChanges in Household Dynamics in South Yemen(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2023-11-29)This paper contributes to an important agenda by studying how female participation in household decision making has been affected by the ongoing civil conflict in the Republic of Yemen in areas under the control of the Internationally Recognized Government. The preliminary results find an increase in women’s participation in decision making since the start of the conflict. Using a difference-in-difference approach that controls for individual and household characteristics, the analysis finds that this result is driven by households living in districts with medium intensity conflict as compared to low intensity conflict. This result holds up to a series of robustness checks and is explained by changes in household composition, whereby men are more likely to leave the household in conflict affected districts, leaving women in charge of household decisions.
PublicationFiscal Policy Effects on Poverty and Inequality in Cambodia(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2023-09-25)This study assesses the short-term impact of fiscal policy, and its individual elements, on poverty and inequality in Cambodia as of 2019. It applies the Commitment to Equity methodology to data from the Cambodia Socio-economic Survey of 2019/20 and fiscal administrative data from various government ministries, departments, and agencies for the assessment. The study presents among the first empirical evidence on the impact of taxes and social spending on households in Cambodia. The study finds that: (i) Cambodia’s 2019 fiscal system reduces inequality by 0.95 Gini index points, with the largest reduction in inequality created by in-kind transfers from spending on primary education; (ii) while Cambodia’s fiscal system reduces inequality, the degree of inequality reduction is small in international comparison; and (iii) low-income households pay more in indirect taxes than they receive in cash benefits in the short term to offset the burden. As a result, the number of poor and vulnerable individuals who, in the short term, experience net cash subtractions from their incomes is greater than the number of poor and vulnerable individuals who experience net additions. Fiscal policy can deliver more net benefits to poor and vulnerable households through expanding social assistance spending. Cambodia has embarked on this expansion during the coronavirus pandemic, bringing it closer in line with comparators.
PublicationWhere Is Poverty Concentrated?: New Evidence Based on Internationally Consistent Urban and Poverty Measurements(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2023-11-29)The lack of comparable urban definitions across countries has presented a significant challenge in effectively addressing poverty in both urban and rural areas. This study aims to tackle this issue by comparing subnational poverty statistics across countries, integrating internationally consistent definitions of urban areas into the World Bank’s official global poverty measurement framework. Focusing primarily on 16 Sub-Saharan African countries, the analysis reveals that poverty rates tend to be lower in densely populated urban areas. However, the findings also highlight that urban areas have a higher concentration of impoverished populations than previously estimated. These results underscore the importance of employing consistent urban definitions in cross-country poverty analysis and call for a reevaluation of geographically targeted policies to expedite poverty reduction efforts.
PublicationReassessing the Impacts of Exports on Local Labor Market Outcomes: A Supply Chain Perspective — Evidence from the Arab Republic of Egypt(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2023-11-28)This paper examines the overall impact of exports while accounting for supply chain linkages on local labor market outcomes in the Arab Republic of Egypt between 2007 and 2018. The paper assesses the effects not only on directly exporting industries, but also on industries indirectly affected by rising export demand. Furthermore, it examines potential impacts on specific groups of workers, such as high-skilled individuals and female workers. The results show that trade does not lead to the same connection with domestic labor markets in Egypt as observed in other countries, as highlighted in the existing literature explaining the adverse effects of imports on developing countries. Despite being more open to trade, trade-intensive industries in Egypt have not experienced a significant increase in their share of employment within the overall workforce. To harness the benefits of trade, Egypt must undertake deeper reforms aimed at significantly expanding the export sector.