A Dime a Day : The Possibilities and Limits of Private Schooling in Pakistan

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collection.link.5
https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/9
collection.name.5
Policy Research Working Papers
dc.contributor.author
Andrabi, Tahir
dc.contributor.author
Das, Jishnu
dc.contributor.author
Khwaja, Asim Ijaz
dc.date.accessioned
2012-06-22T20:42:56Z
dc.date.available
2012-06-22T20:42:56Z
dc.date.issued
2006-11
dc.date.lastModified
2021-04-23T14:02:41Z
dc.description.abstract
This paper looks at the private schooling sector in Pakistan, a country that is seriously behind schedule in achieving the Millennium Development Goals. Using new data, the authors document the phenomenal rise of the private sector in Pakistan and show that an increasing segment of children enrolled in private schools are from rural areas and from middle-class and poorer families. The key element in their rise is their low fees-the average fee of a rural private school in Pakistan is less than a dime a day (Rs.6). They hire predominantly local, female, and moderately educated teachers who have limited alternative opportunities outside the village. Hiring these teachers at low cost allows the savings to be passed on to parents through low fees. This mechanism-the need to hire teachers with a certain demographic profile so that salary costs are minimized-defines the possibility of private schools: where they arise, fees are low. It also defines their limits. Private schools are horizontally constrained in that they arise in villages where there is a pool of secondary educated women. They are also vertically constrained in that they are unlikely to cater to the secondary levels in rural areas, at least until there is an increase in the supply of potential teachers with the required skills and educational levels.
en
dc.identifier
http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/2006/11/7193170/dime-day-possibilities-limits-private-schooling-pakistan
dc.identifier.uri
http://hdl.handle.net/10986/8871
dc.language
English
dc.language.iso
en_US
dc.publisher
Washington, DC : World Bank
dc.relation.ispartofseries
Policy Research Working Paper; No. 4066
dc.rights
CC BY 3.0 IGO
dc.rights.holder
World Bank
dc.rights.uri
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/igo/
dc.subject
ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE
dc.subject
ADULT LITERACY
dc.subject
ADULT LITERACY RATE
dc.subject
AGE GROUPS
dc.subject
ANNUAL FEES
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AVAILABILITY OF TEACHERS
dc.subject
CALL
dc.subject
CLASSROOMS
dc.subject
DEGREES
dc.subject
EDUCATED TEACHERS
dc.subject
EDUCATED WOMEN
dc.subject
EDUCATION DEPARTMENTS
dc.subject
EDUCATION SECTOR
dc.subject
EDUCATIONAL ACHIEVEMENT
dc.subject
EDUCATIONAL BUDGETS
dc.subject
EDUCATIONAL DEMANDS
dc.subject
EDUCATIONAL LEVELS
dc.subject
EDUCATIONAL MANAGEMENT
dc.subject
EDUCATIONAL OUTCOMES
dc.subject
EDUCATIONAL PERFORMANCE
dc.subject
EDUCATIONAL POLICY
dc.subject
EDUCATIONAL REFORM
dc.subject
EMPLOYMENT
dc.subject
EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES
dc.subject
ENROLLMENT
dc.subject
ENROLLMENT GROWTH
dc.subject
ENROLLMENT INCREASES
dc.subject
ENROLLMENT LEVELS
dc.subject
ENROLLMENT RATE
dc.subject
ENROLLMENT RATIO
dc.subject
ENROLLMENT RATIOS
dc.subject
EXCLUSION OF GIRLS
dc.subject
FEMALE EDUCATION
dc.subject
FEMALE ENROLLMENT
dc.subject
FEMALE TEACHER
dc.subject
FEMALE TEACHERS
dc.subject
FUTURE RESEARCH
dc.subject
GENDER DISPARITIES
dc.subject
GENDER GAP
dc.subject
GIRLS
dc.subject
GRADE TEACHERS
dc.subject
GROSS ENROLLMENT
dc.subject
GROSS ENROLLMENT RATES
dc.subject
GROWTH IN ENROLLMENT
dc.subject
HIGH SCHOOL
dc.subject
HIGH SCHOOL EDUCATION
dc.subject
HIGH SCHOOLS
dc.subject
HOUSEHOLD SURVEYS
dc.subject
INFORMATION SYSTEMS
dc.subject
INSTRUCTION
dc.subject
LABOR MARKETS
dc.subject
LEARNING
dc.subject
LITERATURE
dc.subject
LOCAL LABOR MARKET
dc.subject
LOCAL SCHOOLS
dc.subject
LOCAL TEACHERS
dc.subject
MASS EDUCATION
dc.subject
MEDIUM OF INSTRUCTION
dc.subject
MIDDLE EAST
dc.subject
MINISTRY OF EDUCATION
dc.subject
MOBILITY
dc.subject
NET ENROLLMENT
dc.subject
NET ENROLLMENT RATE
dc.subject
OCCUPATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES
dc.subject
PAPERS
dc.subject
PARTICIPATION RATES
dc.subject
PRIMARY EDUCATION
dc.subject
PRIMARY ENROLLMENT
dc.subject
PRIMARY GRADE
dc.subject
PRIMARY LEVEL
dc.subject
PRIMARY SCHOOL
dc.subject
PRIMARY SCHOOLING
dc.subject
PRIMARY SCHOOLS
dc.subject
PRIMARY TEACHER
dc.subject
PRIMARY TEACHER CERTIFICATE
dc.subject
PRIVATE EDUCATION
dc.subject
PRIVATE EDUCATION SECTOR
dc.subject
PRIVATE EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS
dc.subject
PRIVATE INSTITUTIONS
dc.subject
PRIVATE SCHOOL
dc.subject
PRIVATE SCHOOL TEACHERS
dc.subject
PRIVATE SCHOOLING
dc.subject
PRIVATE SCHOOLS
dc.subject
PRIVATE UNAIDED SCHOOLS
dc.subject
PROVINCIAL EDUCATION
dc.subject
PROVISION OF EDUCATION
dc.subject
PUBLIC INVESTMENT IN SCHOOLS
dc.subject
PUBLIC SCHOOL
dc.subject
PUBLIC SCHOOL TEACHERS
dc.subject
PUBLIC SCHOOLING
dc.subject
PUBLIC SCHOOLS
dc.subject
QUALITY EDUCATION
dc.subject
RELIGIOUS SCHOOLS
dc.subject
RURAL AREAS
dc.subject
RURAL CHILDREN
dc.subject
RURAL VILLAGE
dc.subject
SCHOOL CONSTRUCTION
dc.subject
SCHOOL EDUCATION
dc.subject
SCHOOL ENROLLMENT
dc.subject
SCHOOL ENROLLMENTS
dc.subject
SCHOOL FEE
dc.subject
SCHOOL FEES
dc.subject
SCHOOL GOING
dc.subject
SCHOOL LOCATION
dc.subject
SCHOOL MAPPING
dc.subject
SCHOOL TEACHERS
dc.subject
SCHOOL TUITION
dc.subject
SECONDARY EDUCATION
dc.subject
SECONDARY SCHOOL
dc.subject
SECONDARY SCHOOLS
dc.subject
SHOW HOW
dc.subject
SOUTH ASIAN
dc.subject
STUDENT-TEACHER RATIOS
dc.subject
SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
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TEACHER CHARACTERISTICS
dc.subject
TEACHER COMPETENCY
dc.subject
TEACHER EDUCATION
dc.subject
TEACHER TRAINING
dc.subject
TEACHER TRAINING PROGRAMS
dc.subject
TEACHERS
dc.subject
TEACHING
dc.subject
TERTIARY SECTOR
dc.subject
TRAINING PROGRAMS
dc.subject
TUITION
dc.subject
TUITION FEE
dc.subject
TUITION FEES
dc.subject
VILLAGE LEVEL
dc.title
A Dime a Day : The Possibilities and Limits of Private Schooling in Pakistan
en
okr.doctype
Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
okr.doctype
Publications & Research
okr.docurl
http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/2006/11/7193170/dime-day-possibilities-limits-private-schooling-pakistan
okr.globalpractice
Education
okr.googlescholar.linkpresent
yes
okr.identifier.doi
10.1596/1813-9450-4066
okr.identifier.externaldocumentum
000016406_20061110130153
okr.identifier.internaldocumentum
7193170
okr.identifier.report
WPS4066
okr.language.supported
en
okr.pdfurl
http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2006/11/10/000016406_20061110130153/Rendered/PDF/wps4066.pdf
en
okr.region.administrative
South Asia
okr.region.country
Pakistan
okr.region.geographical
Asia
okr.region.geographical
South Asia
okr.topic
Tertiary Education
okr.topic
Secondary Education
okr.topic
Education :: Primary Education
okr.topic
Education :: Education For All
okr.topic
Teaching and Learning
okr.unit
Development Research Group (DECRG)
okr.volume
1 of 1

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