Urban Poverty and Transport : The Case of Mumbai

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collection.link.5
https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/9
collection.name.5
Policy Research Working Papers
dc.contributor.author
Baker, Judy
dc.contributor.author
Basu, Rakhi
dc.contributor.author
Cropper, Maureen
dc.contributor.author
Lall, Somik
dc.contributor.author
Takeuchi, Akie
dc.date.accessioned
2012-06-20T21:57:59Z
dc.date.available
2012-06-20T21:57:59Z
dc.date.issued
2005-09
dc.description.abstract
This paper reports the results of a survey of 5,000 households in the Greater Mumbai Region conducted in the winter of 2004. The goal of the survey was to better understand the demand for transport services by the poor, the factors affecting this demand, and the inter-linkages between transport decisions and other vital decisions such as where to live and work. This paper, the first of several research outputs, describes the salient facts about travel patterns in Mumbai for both poor and non-poor households. A striking finding of the survey is the extent to which all households-especially poor households-rely on walking. Overall, 44 percent of commuters in Mumbai walk to work. The proportion of the poor who walk to work is even higher-63 percent. Walking is an even higher modal share for nonwork than for work trips. A second finding is that public transit remains an important factor in the mobility of the poor, and especially in the mobility of the middle class. Overall, rail remains the main mode to work for 23 percent of commuters, while bus remains the main mode for 16 percent of commuters. The modal shares for bus are highest for the poor in zones 1-3 (21 percent of the poor in zone 2 take the bus to work), while rail shares are highest for the poor in the suburbs (25 percent of the poor in zone 6 take rail to work). Is the cost and lack of accessibility to transit a barrier to the mobility of the poor? Does it keep them from obtaining better housing and better jobs? This is a difficult question to answer without further analysis of the survey data. But it appears that transport is less of a barrier to the poor who live in central Mumbai (zones 1-3) than it is to the poor who live in the suburbs (zones 4-6). The poor who live in zones 1-3 (central Mumbai) live closer to the non-poor than do poor households in the suburbs. They also live closer to higher-paying jobs for unskilled workers. Workers in these households, on average, commute short distances (less than 3 kilometers), although a non-negligible fraction of them (one-third in zone 2) take public transit to work. It is true that the cost of housing for the poor is higher in central Mumbai than in the suburbs, but the quality of slum housing is at least as good in central Mumbai as in the suburbs. The poor who live in the suburbs of Mumbai, especially in zones 5 and 6, are more isolated from the rich than the poor in central Mumbai: 37 percent of the poor live in zones 5 and 6, whereas only one-fifth of higher income groups do. Wages for skilled and unskilled labor are generally lower in zones 5 and 6 than in the central city, and it appears that unemployment rates for poor males are also higher in these zones. The lower cost of slum and chawl housing in zones 5 and 6 may partly compensate for lower wages. However, a larger proportion of workers in poor households leave zones 5 and 6 to work than is true for poor workers in other zones. Commuting distances are much higher for poor workers in the suburbs than for poor workers in zones 1-3.
en
dc.identifier
http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/2005/09/6246708/urban-poverty-transport-case-mumbai
dc.identifier.uri
http://hdl.handle.net/10986/8602
dc.language
English
dc.publisher
World Bank, Washington, DC
dc.relation.ispartofseries
Policy Research Working Paper; No. 3693
dc.rights
CC BY 3.0 IGO
dc.rights.holder
World Bank
dc.rights.uri
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/igo/
dc.subject
ACCESSIBILITY
dc.subject
ARTERIAL ROADS
dc.subject
AVERAGE AGE
dc.subject
BRIDGE
dc.subject
BUSES
dc.subject
CARS
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COMMUTERS
dc.subject
COMMUTING
dc.subject
CONSUMPTION MODULE
dc.subject
DATA COLLECTION
dc.subject
DATA QUALITY
dc.subject
DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
dc.subject
DRIVERS
dc.subject
EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT
dc.subject
FARES
dc.subject
GPS
dc.subject
GROUP DISCUSSIONS
dc.subject
HEALTH CARE
dc.subject
HOUSEHOLD ACCESS
dc.subject
HOUSEHOLD ASSETS
dc.subject
HOUSEHOLD CHARACTERISTICS
dc.subject
HOUSEHOLD CONSUMPTION
dc.subject
HOUSEHOLD HEAD
dc.subject
HOUSEHOLD INCOME
dc.subject
HOUSEHOLD QUESTIONNAIRE
dc.subject
HOUSEHOLD SIZE
dc.subject
HOUSEHOLD SURVEY
dc.subject
HOUSEHOLD WELFARE
dc.subject
INCOME
dc.subject
INCOME HOUSEHOLDS
dc.subject
JOURNEY
dc.subject
JOURNEY TO WORK
dc.subject
LIVING STANDARDS
dc.subject
MEASURING INCOME
dc.subject
MOBILITY
dc.subject
MOTORCYCLES
dc.subject
MOTORIZED TRANSPORT
dc.subject
NATIONAL AVERAGE
dc.subject
POLICY RESEARCH
dc.subject
POOR
dc.subject
POOR CHILDREN
dc.subject
POOR HOUSEHOLDS
dc.subject
POOR LIVING
dc.subject
POVERTY ANALYSIS
dc.subject
POVERTY LINE
dc.subject
PRIMARY EDUCATION
dc.subject
QUESTIONNAIRE
dc.subject
REGIONAL PLANNING
dc.subject
RESPONDENT FATIGUE
dc.subject
RURAL AREAS
dc.subject
SAMPLE HOUSEHOLDS
dc.subject
SAMPLE SELECTION
dc.subject
SAMPLE SIZE
dc.subject
SAMPLING FRAME
dc.subject
SHARING
dc.subject
SOCIAL EXCLUSION
dc.subject
SOCIAL SERVICES
dc.subject
SPATIAL DIMENSIONS
dc.subject
SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION
dc.subject
SURVEY
dc.subject
TRANSPORT
dc.subject
TRANSPORT PLANNING
dc.subject
TRANSPORTATION
dc.subject
TRAVEL TIMES
dc.subject
TRIPS
dc.subject
URBAN AREAS
dc.subject
URBAN POOR
dc.subject
URBAN POVERTY
dc.subject
URBAN TRANSPORT
dc.subject
VEHICLES
dc.subject
WALKING
dc.subject
WALKING DISTANCE
dc.subject
WALKING TIME
dc.title
Urban Poverty and Transport : The Case of Mumbai
en
okr.doctype
Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
okr.doctype
Publications & Research
okr.docurl
http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/2005/09/6246708/urban-poverty-transport-case-mumbai
okr.globalpractice
Social, Urban, Rural and Resilience
okr.globalpractice
Transport and ICT
okr.globalpractice
Social Protection and Labor
okr.globalpractice
Poverty
okr.googlescholar.linkpresent
yes
okr.identifier.doi
10.1596/1813-9450-3693
okr.identifier.externaldocumentum
000016406_20050824160629
okr.identifier.internaldocumentum
6246708
okr.identifier.report
WPS3693
okr.language.supported
en
okr.pdfurl
http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2005/08/24/000016406_20050824160629/Rendered/PDF/wps3693.pdf
en
okr.region.administrative
South Asia
okr.region.country
India
okr.topic
Social Protections and Labor :: Safety Nets and Transfers
okr.topic
Roads and Highways
okr.topic
Services and Transfers to Poor
okr.topic
Poverty Reduction :: Rural Poverty Reduction
okr.topic
Poverty Reduction :: Poverty Assessment
okr.topic
Transport
okr.topic
Rural Development
okr.unit
Development Research Group (DECRG)
okr.volume
1 of 1

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