Publication: Innovation and Development around the World, 1960-2000
The authors present a database of indicators of innovative activity around the world since the early 1960s. The data include measures of innovation outcomes as well as variables related to innovation effort. The main indicator of innovation outputs is patents. The main variables related to innovation inputs are investment in research and development (R&D) and technical personnel (engineers, scientists) working in R&D activities. The sources of these data are publicly available (OECD, UNESCO, etc.), yet there have been few attempts at double checking the consistency of these data and digitizing observations dating back to the 1960s. After discussing the sources and definitions of the data, the authors examine trends and patterns of innovation outputs and inputs by looking at the over-time behavior of the relevant series and comparing the performance of developing and high-income countries. They also provide cross-regional comparisons and a detailed examination of trends in selected countries. In turn, the authors provide estimates of the impact of innovation on long-run development by following an emerging empirical literature on the determinants of levels of GDP per capita. The econometric results suggest that innovation might indeed have strong positive effects on long-run development, which might be stronger than the direct effects of institutions. The analysis pays close attention to issues related to the potential endogeneity of innovation (and institutions) with respect to the level of development.
“Lederman, Daniel; Saenz, Laura. 2005. Innovation and Development around the World, 1960-2000. Policy Research Working Paper; No. 3774. © World Bank, Washington, DC. http://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/8576 License: CC BY 3.0 IGO.”
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