Informal Workers across Europe : Evidence from 30 European Countries

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collection.link.5
https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/9
collection.name.5
Policy Research Working Papers
dc.contributor.author
Hazans, Mihails
dc.date.accessioned
2012-03-19T18:06:45Z
dc.date.available
2012-03-19T18:06:45Z
dc.date.issued
2011-12-01
dc.date.lastModified
2021-04-23T14:02:11Z
dc.description.abstract
The European Social Survey data are used to analyze informal employment in 30 countries, focusing on employees without contracts and on informal self-employed workers (who are distinguished from formal workers). Overall the size of informal employment decreases from South to West to East to North. However, working without a contract is more prevalent in Eastern Europe than in the West, except for Ireland, the United Kingdom, and Austria. Between 2004 and 2009, no cases were found when unemployment and dependent informality rates in a country went up together, suggesting that working without a contract is pro-cyclical in Europe. The dependent informality rate is inversely related to skills (measured by either schooling or occupation). Both in Southern and in Western Europe, the highest dependent informality rate is found among immigrants from Central and Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union, while in Eastern Europe this group is second after minorities without immigrant background. In the Southern and part of Western Europe, immigrants not covered by European Union free mobility provisions are much more likely to work without a contract than otherwise similar natives. The paper provides evidence that exclusion and discrimination plays an important role in pushing employees into informality, while this seems not to be the case for informal self-employed workers. Both on average and after controlling for a rich set of individual characteristics, informal employees in all parts of Europe are having the largest financial difficulties among all categories of the employed population (yet they fare much better than the unemployed and discouraged), while informal self-employed workers are at least as well off as formal employees. Finally, there is a negative and significant effect of individual-level satisfaction with the national government on the propensity to work without a contract in Eastern Europe, as well as in Western Europe.
en
dc.identifier
http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/main?menuPK=64187510&pagePK=64193027&piPK=64187937&theSitePK=523679&menuPK=64187510&searchMenuPK=64187283&siteName=WDS&entityID=000158349_20111213090401
dc.identifier.uri
http://hdl.handle.net/10986/3681
dc.language
English
dc.relation.ispartofseries
Policy Research working paper ; no. WPS 5912
dc.rights
CC BY 3.0 IGO
dc.rights.holder
World Bank
dc.rights.uri
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/igo/
dc.subject
AGE COMPOSITION
dc.subject
ANNUAL LEAVE
dc.subject
AVERAGE UNEMPLOYMENT
dc.subject
DEVELOPMENT ECONOMICS
dc.subject
DISABILITY
dc.subject
DISPLACED WORKERS
dc.subject
DRIVERS
dc.subject
ECONOMIC GROWTH
dc.subject
EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT
dc.subject
EMPLOYEE
dc.subject
EMPLOYEE BENEFITS
dc.subject
EMPLOYERS
dc.subject
EMPLOYMENT CONTRACTS
dc.subject
EMPLOYMENT PROTECTION LEGISLATION
dc.subject
EMPLOYMENT RELATIONSHIP
dc.subject
EMPLOYMENT STATUS
dc.subject
FIELD WORK
dc.subject
FIRING
dc.subject
FIRING COSTS
dc.subject
FORMAL LABOR MARKET
dc.subject
GENERAL EQUILIBRIUM
dc.subject
HIGHER EDUCATION
dc.subject
HIRING
dc.subject
HOUSEHOLD INCOME
dc.subject
HOUSEHOLD SURVEYS
dc.subject
HUMAN CAPITAL
dc.subject
HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
dc.subject
INFORMAL ECONOMY
dc.subject
INFORMAL EMPLOYMENT
dc.subject
INFORMAL SECTOR
dc.subject
JOB CREATION
dc.subject
JOB OFFER
dc.subject
JOB OFFERS
dc.subject
JOB SECURITY
dc.subject
JOBS
dc.subject
LABOR DEMAND
dc.subject
LABOR FORCE
dc.subject
LABOR MARKET
dc.subject
LABOR MARKET FLEXIBILITY
dc.subject
LABOR MARKETS
dc.subject
LABOR REGULATIONS
dc.subject
LABOR SUPPLY
dc.subject
LEGAL STATUS
dc.subject
LITERATURE
dc.subject
LONG-TERM UNEMPLOYMENT
dc.subject
LONGTERM UNEMPLOYMENT
dc.subject
LOW TRUST
dc.subject
MALE EMPLOYEES
dc.subject
MARKET ECONOMY
dc.subject
MINIMUM WAGE
dc.subject
MORALE
dc.subject
MOTIVATION
dc.subject
OCCUPATION
dc.subject
OCCUPATIONS
dc.subject
OLDER WORKERS
dc.subject
OPEN ACCESS
dc.subject
PAPERS
dc.subject
PRESENT VALUE
dc.subject
PRIME AGE
dc.subject
PRIVATE SECTOR
dc.subject
PRIVATE SECTOR EMPLOYEES
dc.subject
PRODUCTION PROCESS
dc.subject
PRODUCTIVITY
dc.subject
PROFESSIONALS
dc.subject
RECRUITMENT
dc.subject
RETIREMENT
dc.subject
SAFETY
dc.subject
SAFETY NET
dc.subject
SALARIED WORKERS
dc.subject
SELF EMPLOYED
dc.subject
SELF EMPLOYMENT
dc.subject
SELF-EMPLOYED ACCOUNT
dc.subject
SERVICE PROVIDERS
dc.subject
SICK LEAVE
dc.subject
SKILLED WORKERS
dc.subject
SMALL BUSINESS
dc.subject
SOCIAL CAPITAL
dc.subject
TEMPORARY EMPLOYMENT
dc.subject
TOTAL EMPLOYMENT
dc.subject
UNEMPLOYED
dc.subject
UNEMPLOYMENT
dc.subject
UNEMPLOYMENT EXPERIENCE
dc.subject
UNEMPLOYMENT RATE
dc.subject
UNEMPLOYMENT RATES
dc.subject
UNION MEMBERSHIP
dc.subject
UNIVERSITY DEGREES
dc.subject
UNIVERSITY GRADUATES
dc.subject
WAGE EMPLOYMENT
dc.subject
WAGE LEVEL
dc.subject
WAGES
dc.subject
WORK ACTIVITIES
dc.subject
WORK EXPERIENCE
dc.subject
WORK IN PROGRESS
dc.subject
WORK PERMITS
dc.subject
WORKER
dc.subject
WORKERS
dc.subject
WORKING
dc.subject
WORKING CONDITION
dc.subject
WORKING CONDITIONS
dc.subject
WORKING HOURS
dc.subject
WORKING TIME
dc.subject
YOUNG WORKERS
dc.title
Informal Workers across Europe : Evidence from 30 European Countries
en
okr.crosscuttingsolutionarea
Jobs
okr.date.disclosure
2011-12-01
okr.doctype
Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
okr.docurl
http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/main?menuPK=64187510&pagePK=64193027&piPK=64187937&theSitePK=523679&menuPK=64187510&searchMenuPK=64187283&siteName=WDS&entityID=000158349_20111213090401
okr.globalpractice
Education
okr.globalpractice
Social Protection and Labor
okr.googlescholar.linkpresent
yes
okr.identifier.doi
10.1596/1813-9450-5912
okr.identifier.externaldocumentum
000158349_20111213090401
okr.identifier.internaldocumentum
15547681
okr.identifier.report
WPS5912
okr.language.supported
en
okr.pdfurl
http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2011/12/13/000158349_20111213090401/Rendered/PDF/WPS5912.pdf
en
okr.region.administrative
Europe and Central Asia
okr.region.administrative
Europe and Central Asia
okr.topic
Social Protections and Labor :: Labor Policies
okr.topic
Social Protections and Labor :: Work & Working Conditions
okr.topic
Tertiary Education
okr.topic
Education
okr.unit
Development Research Group (DECRG)
okr.volume
1 of 1

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