Book

Artisanal Scale Gold Mining : A Framework for Collecting Site-Specific Sampling and Survey Data to Support Health-Impact Analyses

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collection.link.313
https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/29311
collection.name.313
International Development in Focus
dc.contributor.author
von Stackelberg, Katherine
dc.contributor.author
Williams, Pamela R.D.
dc.contributor.author
Sánchez-Triana, Ernesto
dc.date.accessioned
2021-11-17T20:57:12Z
dc.date.available
2021-11-17T20:57:12Z
dc.date.issued
2022
dc.date.lastModified
2021-11-18T20:29:48Z
dc.description.abstract
THIS IS A CONFERENCE EDITION FOR A PUBLICATION EXPECTED IN JANUARY. This framework document provides a pragmatic approach for designing representative studies and developing uniform sampling guidelines to support estimates of morbidity that are explicitly linked to exposure to land-based contaminants from small-scale artisanal gold mining activities. A primary goal is to support environmental burden of disease evaluations, which attempt to attribute health outcomes to specific sources of pollution. The guidelines provide recommendations on the most appropriate and cost-effective sampling and analysis methods to ensure the collection of representative population-level data, sample size recommendations for each contaminant and environmental media, biological sampling data, household survey data, and health outcome data. This framework focuses on small-scale artisanal gold mining (ASGM) activities that are known to use and generate mercury (Hg) as well as other metals, such as arsenic (As) and lead (Pb), depending on the specific ores being mined. A particular concern with Hg is the conversion to methylmercury (MeHg) in aquatic environments, leading to bioaccumulation and biomagnification in fish that may be locally consumed. Exposure to Hg, MeHg, and Pb are strongly associated with neurodevelopmental health outcomes in children. Exposure to Hg and MeHg are also associated with neurological illnesses in adults. Exposures to Pb are associated with renal outcomes in children and adults, and cardiovascular outcomes in adults. Exposure to As are associated with neurodevelopmental health outcomes in children, arsenicosis and skin disorders in children and adults, and potential cancers in adults, including skin, bladder, and lung. The primary objective of this framework is to guide research to assess the relationship between environmental contamination, exposures, and health outcomes related to a subset of contaminants originating from ASGM activities for particularly vulnerable populations (such as children) and the general population within a single household in the vicinity of ASGM sites in low- and medium-income countries. To achieve this objective, biomonitoring and health outcome data are linked to household survey and environmental data (for example, soil, dust, water, agricultural products, fish) at the individual level from an exposed population compared to individuals from an unexposed (reference) population. Data on exposures and health outcomes in the same individual across a representative set of individuals is required to support an understanding of the potential impact of ASGM activities on local populations. These guidelines can also assist in building local capacity to conduct environmental assessments following a consistent methodology to facilitate comparability across ASGM sites in different geographic areas. Sampling strategies and methods are prioritized given information needs, resource availability, and other constraints or considerations. The framework includes a number of supporting appendixes that provide additional resources and references on relevant topics.
en
dc.identifier.isbn
978-1-4648-1819-6
dc.identifier.uri
http://hdl.handle.net/10986/36592
dc.publisher
Washington, DC: World Bank
dc.relation.ispartofseries
International Development in Focus;
dc.rights
CC BY 3.0 IGO
dc.rights.holder
World Bank
dc.rights.uri
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/igo
dc.subject
MORBIDITY
dc.subject
MERCURY POISONING
dc.subject
LEAD POISONING
dc.subject
ARSENIC
dc.subject
ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS
dc.subject
MINING POLLUTION
dc.subject
ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT
dc.subject
GOLD MINING
dc.subject
HEALTH MONITORING
dc.subject
SUSTAINABLE LAND MANAGEMENT
dc.title
Artisanal Scale Gold Mining
en
dc.title.subtitle
A Framework for Collecting Site-Specific Sampling and Survey Data to Support Health-Impact Analyses
en
dc.type
Book
en
okr.date.disclosure
2021-11-18
okr.doctype
Publications & Research
okr.doctype
Publications & Research :: Publication
okr.googlescholar.linkpresent
yes
okr.identifier.doi
10.1596/978-1-4648-1819-6
okr.language.supported
en
okr.topic
Environment :: Pollution Management & Control
okr.topic
Health, Nutrition and Population :: Environment and Health
okr.topic
Industry :: Mining & Extractive Industry (Non-Energy)
okr.topic
Environment :: Brown Issues and Health
okr.unit
GENGE

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