Report

Pakistan Strategic Country Environmental Assessment

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collection.link.55
https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/2163
collection.name.55
Country Environmental Analysis
dc.contributor.author
World Bank
dc.date.accessioned
2020-06-17T16:00:20Z
dc.date.available
2020-06-17T16:00:20Z
dc.date.issued
2006-08-21
dc.date.lastModified
2021-04-23T14:01:58Z
dc.description.abstract
The urgency of addressing Pakistan's environmental problems has probably never been greater. Conservative estimates presented in this report suggest that environmental degradation costs the country at least 6 percent of GDP, or about Rs. 365 billion per year, and these costs fall disproportionately upon the poor. The most significant causes of environmental damage identified and estimated in this report are (1) illness and premature mortality caused by air pollution (indoor and outdoor), (almost 50 percent oft he total damage cost); (2) diarrhoeal diseases and typhoid due to inadequate water supply, sanitation and hygiene (about 30 percent of the total), and (3) reduced agricultural productivity due to soil degradation (about 20 percent of the total). The magnitude of these costs indicates that environmental decay has become a serious development concern. Following a discussion of the analytical framework for environmental outcomes, , the report analyzes the main binding constraints to improving environmental performance as falling into four categories, (1) gaps in institutional design, (2) gaps in the regulatory framework, (3) capacity limitations, and (4) gaps in incentives and accountability. Of these, weak incentives and low levels of public accountability remain the critical constraints on performance. Public scrutiny of performance is ultimately a source of strength that leads to stronger institutions with greater public trust and support. The principal features of these constraints are discussed, as are recommendations for moving forward to more sustainable economic growth. The annex (Volume 2) provides a comprehensive overview of the data and methods used to estimate the costs of environmental degradation in three environmental damage categories and three natural resource damage categories: (1) urban air pollution, including particulate matter and lead, (2) water supply, sanitation and hygiene, (3) indoor air pollution, (4) agricultural damage from soil salinity and erosion, (5) rangeland degradation, and (6) deforestation. Data limitations have prevented estimation of degradation costs at the national level for coastal zones, municipal waste disposal, and inadequate industrial and hospital waste management.
en
dc.identifier
http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/132221468087836074/Main-report
dc.identifier.uri
http://hdl.handle.net/10986/33928
dc.language
English
dc.publisher
World Bank, Washington, DC
dc.rights
CC BY 3.0 IGO
dc.rights.holder
World Bank
dc.rights.uri
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/igo
dc.subject
ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY
dc.subject
ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT
dc.subject
ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH RISK
dc.subject
NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
dc.subject
ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION
dc.subject
ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY
dc.subject
INSTITUTIONS
dc.subject
AIR QUALITY
dc.subject
WATER AND SANITATION
dc.subject
DRINKING WATER
dc.subject
WATER AND SANITATION
dc.subject
DONOR COORDINATION
dc.subject
ACCOUNTABILITY
dc.subject
GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS
dc.title
Pakistan Strategic Country Environmental Assessment
en
dc.type
Report
en
okr.date.disclosure
2006-10-06
okr.doctype
Economic & Sector Work
okr.doctype
Economic & Sector Work :: Country Environmental Analysis
okr.docurl
http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/132221468087836074/Main-report
okr.googlescholar.linkpresent
yes
okr.identifier.externaldocumentum
000160016_20061002113552
okr.identifier.internaldocumentum
7100383
okr.identifier.report
36946
okr.imported
true
en
okr.language.supported
en
okr.pdfurl
http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/132221468087836074/pdf/3694610vol011PK.pdf
en
okr.region.administrative
South Asia
okr.region.country
Pakistan
okr.topic
Environment :: Air Quality & Clean Air
okr.topic
Environment :: Environmental Economics & Policies
okr.topic
Environment :: Environmental Management
okr.topic
Environment :: Natural Resources Management
okr.topic
Environment :: Pollution Management & Control
okr.topic
Environment :: Water Resources Management
okr.topic
Water Supply and Sanitation :: Water Supply and Sanitation Economics
okr.topic
Water Supply and Sanitation :: Water Treatment & Quality
okr.unit
Environment & Water Resources (SASDI)

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