Publication: Pull Your Small Area Estimates Up by the Bootstraps
After almost two decades of poverty maps produced by the World Bank and multiple advances in the literature, this paper presents a methodological update to the World Bank's toolkit for small area estimation. The paper reviews the computational procedures of the current methods used by the World Bank: the traditional approach by Elbers, Lanjouw and Lanjouw (2003) and the Empirical Best/Bayes (EB) addition introduced by Van der Weide (2014). The addition extends the EB procedure of Molina and Rao (2010) by considering heteroscedasticity and includes survey weights, but uses a different bootstrap approach, here referred to as clustered bootstrap. Simulation experiments comparing these methods to the original EB approach of Molina and Rao (2010) provide empirical evidence of the shortcomings of the clustered bootstrap approach, which yields biased point estimates. The main contributions of this paper are then two: 1) to adapt the original Monte Carlo simulation procedure of Molina and Rao (2010) for the approximation of the extended EB estimators that include heteroscedasticity and survey weights as in Van der Weide (2014); and 2) to adapt the parametric bootstrap approach for mean squared error (MSE) estimation considered by Molina and Rao (2010), and proposed originally by González-Manteiga et al. (2008), to these extended EB estimators. Simulation experiments illustrate that the revised Monte Carlo simulation method yields estimators that are considerably less biased and more efficient in terms of MSE than those obtained from the clustered bootstrap approach, and that the parametric bootstrap MSE estimators are in line with the true MSEs under realistic scenarios.
“Corral, Paul; Molina, Isabel; Nguyen, Minh. 2020. Pull Your Small Area Estimates Up by the Bootstraps; Pull Your Small Area Estimates Up by the Bootstraps. Policy Research Working Paper;No. 9256. © World Bank, Washington, DC. http://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/33819 License: CC BY 3.0 IGO.”
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