Report

Growing United : Upgrading Europe's Convergence Machine

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collection.link.45
https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/2153
collection.name.45
Other Social Protection Study
dc.contributor.author
Ridao-Cano, Cristobal
dc.contributor.author
Bodewig, Christian
dc.date.accessioned
2018-03-08T22:23:05Z
dc.date.available
2018-03-08T22:23:05Z
dc.date.issued
2018-03-01
dc.description.abstract
Since its foundation over sixty years ago, the European Union (EU) has become the modern world's greatest "convergence machine", propelling poorer, and newer, member states to become high-income economies, and delivering to its citizens some of the highest living standards and lowest levels of income inequality in the world. But today, Europeans are increasingly recognizing that convergence is not automatic. Inequality among people has been mounting in many parts of the EU since the 1990s, as low-income Europeans are falling behind in the labor market. And the productivity gap between Southern and Northern member states has been widening since the early 2000s. The EU is growing, but Europeans are not "growing united". Why? Growing United argues that technological change, by revolutionizing product and labor markets, is slowing down the old convergence machine: technology offers ever richer opportunities for well-skilled workers and frontier firms, while low-skilled workers and less productive firms risk falling behind. As a result, countries that provide less opportunities for people to build relevant skills and a less supportive environment for firms to thrive are losing ground. This calls for an upgrade to Europe's convergence machine, to seize the benefits of technological change for all Europeans. Growing United argues that the convergence machine, version 2.0, should focus on the convergence of opportunities for people and firms across the Union. It should support the capabilities of people (skills) and firms (innovation), and provide a level-playing field for people and firms through "flexicure" labor markets and an enabling business environment.
en
dc.identifier.uri
http://hdl.handle.net/10986/29448
dc.language
English
dc.publisher
World Bank, Washington, DC
dc.rights
CC BY 3.0 IGO
dc.rights.holder
World Bank
dc.rights.uri
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/igo
dc.subject
INEQUALITY
dc.subject
INCOME DISTRIBUTION
dc.subject
ECONOMIC GROWTH
dc.subject
JOB CREATION
dc.subject
TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE
dc.subject
DIVERGENCE
dc.subject
LABOR SKILLS
dc.subject
LABOR MARKET
dc.subject
INNOVATION
dc.subject
INCOME DIVIDE
dc.subject
POVERTY
dc.subject
EDUCATION POLICY
dc.subject
LABOR POLICY
dc.subject
SOCIAL POLICY
dc.subject
SOCIAL PROTECTION
dc.subject
LIVING STANDARDS
dc.subject
EMPLOYMENT
dc.subject
UNEMPLOYMENT
dc.subject
EQUALITY OF OPPORTUNITY
dc.title
Growing United
en
dc.title.subtitle
Upgrading Europe's Convergence Machine
en
dc.type
Report
en
okr.date.disclosure
2018-03-08
okr.doctype
Economic & Sector Work :: Other Social Protection Study
okr.doctype
Economic & Sector Work
okr.docurl
http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/250311520359538450/Growing-united-upgrading-Europes-convergence-machine
okr.googlescholar.linkpresent
yes
okr.identifier.externaldocumentum
090224b08573faeb_1_0
okr.identifier.internaldocumentum
29696188
okr.identifier.report
123956
okr.imported
true
en
okr.language.supported
en
okr.pdfurl
http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/250311520359538450/pdf/123956-WP-v2-March-8-GrowingUnitedvonline.pdf
en
okr.region.administrative
Europe and Central Asia
okr.region.geographical
Eastern Europe
okr.region.geographical
Europe
okr.region.geographical
European Union
okr.topic
Poverty Reduction :: Achieving Shared Growth
okr.topic
Poverty Reduction :: Inequality
okr.topic
Poverty Reduction :: Living Standards
okr.topic
Poverty Reduction :: Poverty Reduction Strategies
okr.topic
Poverty Reduction :: Pro-Poor Growth
okr.topic
Social Protections and Labor :: Employment and Unemployment
okr.topic
Social Protections and Labor :: Labor Markets
okr.topic
Social Protections and Labor :: Labor Policies
okr.topic
Social Protections and Labor :: Skills Development and Labor Force Training
okr.topic
Social Protections and Labor :: Social Protections & Assistance
okr.unit
Social Protection & Labor ECA (GSP03)

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