Publication: Optimizing Finance for Development
The World Bank Group recently adopted the "cascade framework" to "maximize finance for development." The cascade recommends that reforms be tried first, followed by subsidies, and then public investments. To understand the economics of the cascade, this paper presents a model where reforms, subsidies, and public investments can be used to fill the investment gap, and computes the welfare associated with their different sequencing. The cascade is optimal when reforms increase efficiency at no cost. When they are costly, if policies can be project specific, their sequencing does not matter; if not, the cascade can be optimal if agents are myopic, but not if they are forward-looking. Tensions may thus arise between maximizing private financing and optimizing financing for development.
Link to Data Set
“Cordella, Tito. 2018. Optimizing Finance for Development. Policy Research Working Paper;No. 8320. © World Bank, Washington, DC. http://hdl.handle.net/10986/29286 License: CC BY 3.0 IGO.”
Other publications in this report series
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PublicationGlobal Trends in Child Monetary Poverty According to International Poverty Lines(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2023-09-19)This paper analyzes extreme child poverty ($2.15/day poverty line) trends, as well as child poverty based on the higher international poverty lines of $3.65 and $6.85. The paper provides a trajectory of extreme child poverty (children living in extremely poor households) from 2013 to 2019 (based on the most recent surveys included in the Global Monitoring Database), complemented by nowcasting for 2020 to 2022. Children continue to be disproportionately affected by extreme poverty. Children who are younger than 18 years comprise more than 50 percent of those living in extreme poverty, although their share of the population is 31 percent. The paper estimates that in 2019, 15.8 percent of children in the world (319 million) younger than 18 years lived on less than $2.15 (2017 purchasing power parity) per day, as opposed to 6.6 percent of adults ages 18 and older. More recent “nowcasted” estimates suggest that at least 333 million children were expected to be living in extremely poor households in 2022, implying that 14 million more children were extremely poor in 2022 than in 2019. Following an increase in extreme child poverty at the height of the pandemic in 2020, nowcasted estimates show that the rate of extreme child poverty fell again in 2021 and 2022, but only at the slow rate of progress seen prior to the COVID-19 crisis. If the COVID-19 pandemic had not occurred, an estimated 79.7 million fewer children would have been living in extreme poverty between 2013 and 2022; however, the estimates suggest that the number of children living in extreme poverty decreased by 49.2 million, due to pandemic disruptions.