Working Paper

The Double Burden of Malnutrition : A Review of Global Evidence

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collection.link.221
https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/12995
collection.name.221
Health, Nutrition and Population (HNP) Discussion Papers
dc.contributor.author
Shrimpton, Roger
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dc.contributor.author
Rokx, Claudia
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dc.date.accessioned
2017-06-27T21:35:22Z
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dc.date.available
2017-06-27T21:35:22Z
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dc.date.issued
2012-11
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dc.description.abstract
The Double Burden of Malnutrition (DBM) is the coexistence of both under nutrition and over nutrition in the same population across the life course. 'Across the life course' refers to the phenomenon that under nutrition early in life contributes to an increased propensity for over nutrition in adulthood. The DBM affects all countries, rich and poor, and is a particular concern in countries with high stunting rates. The consequences of the DBM are enormous; early life under nutrition is an underlying cause associated with about a third of young child deaths. Among the survivors who become stunted during the first two years of life, their capacity to resist disease, to carry out physical work, to study and progress in school, are all impaired across the life course. Later in the life course, diet and nutrition, and especially obesity, are important underlying causes of many Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs), including hypertension, diabetes, cancer, stroke, and ischemic heart disease. The causes of the DBM are related to a series of changes occurring in the world called the nutrition transition, the demographic transition, and the epidemiological transition of countries. The variables associated with the nutrition transition and obesity epidemic can be grouped into four cross-cutting themes, which include: (i) the health/biological environment; (ii) the economic/food environment; (iii) the physical/built environment; and (iv) the socio/cultural environment. The solutions for the DBM problems are reasonably well recognized in each of its parts: under nutrition and over nutrition. However, the solutions have not been combined into an overarching policy and program framework, which together with raising awareness about the serious future implications for the low-and middle income countries is the aim of this paper.
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dc.identifier.uri
http://hdl.handle.net/10986/27417
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dc.language
English
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dc.publisher
World Bank, Washington, DC
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dc.relation.ispartofseries
Health, Nutrition and Population Discussion Paper;
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dc.rights
CC BY 3.0 IGO
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dc.rights.holder
World Bank
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dc.rights.uri
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/igo
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dc.subject
ACCESS TO HEALTH SERVICES
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ADEQUATE DIET
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AGED
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AGING
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AGING POPULATIONS
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AGRICULTURE
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ANEMIA
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ANTIOXIDANTS
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BABIES
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BABY
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BAKED GOODS
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BAKING
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BOTTLING
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BREAD
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BREASTFEEDING
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BUTTER
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CANCER
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CARBOHYDRATE
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CARBOHYDRATES
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CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE
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CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES
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CEREAL PRODUCTION
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CEREALS
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CHILD DEVELOPMENT
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CHILD GROWTH
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CHILD MARRIAGE
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CHILD MORTALITY
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CLIMATE CHANGE
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COMMUNICABLE DISEASES
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COMPLEX CARBOHYDRATES
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CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
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CONFECTIONERY
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CONSUMPTION PATTERNS
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CONVENIENCE FOODS
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COOKING
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CORN
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CREAM
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CULTURAL PRACTICES
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CURING
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DAIRY
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DEATH RATES
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DEMAND FOR FOOD
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DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION
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DEREGULATION
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DEVELOPED COUNTRIES
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DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
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DIABETES
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DIARRHEA
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DIET
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DIETARY CHANGES
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DIETARY ENERGY
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DIETARY FAT
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DIETING
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DIETS
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DURATION OF BREASTFEEDING
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EARLY DEATH
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EATING HABITS
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ECONOMIC ACTIVITY
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ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
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ECONOMIC GROWTH
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ELDERLY
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EMISSIONS
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ENVIRONMENTAL
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ENVIRONMENTS
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EPIDEMIC
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EXISTING CAPACITY
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EXPENDITURES
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FAMILIES
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FAMILY SIZE
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FAST FOOD
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FAST FOOD RESTAURANTS
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FATS
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FERMENTATION
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FERTILITY
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FIRST MARRIAGE
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FISCAL POLICIES
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FISH
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FLAVOR ENHANCERS
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FLAVORING AGENTS
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FOLIC ACID
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FOOD ADDITIVES
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FOOD AVAILABILITY
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FOOD BASKET
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FOOD CHAIN
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FOOD CHAINS
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FOOD CONSUMPTION
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FOOD DEFICIT
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FOOD DEMAND
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FOOD DISTRIBUTION
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FOOD IMPORTS
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FOOD INDUSTRY
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FOOD MARKETING
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FOOD POLICY
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FOOD PRICES
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FOOD PROCESSING
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FOOD PRODUCTION
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FOOD PRODUCTS
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FOOD SAFETY
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FOOD SECURITY
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FOOD SUBSIDIES
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FOOD SUPPLEMENTATION
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FOOD SUPPLY
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FOODS
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FREEZING
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FRUIT
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FRUITS
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GLOBAL FOOD PRODUCTION
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GLOBAL POPULATION
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GRAINS
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GREEN REVOLUTION
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GROSS NATIONAL PRODUCT
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HEALTH CARE
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HEALTH EFFECTS
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HEALTH RISKS
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HEALTH SERVICES
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HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE
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HORMONES
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HOUSEHOLD LEVEL
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HUMAN BODY
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HUMAN CAPITAL
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HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
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HUMAN HEALTH
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HUNGER
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HYGIENE
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HYPERTENSION
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IMMUNE SYSTEM
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IMMUNIZATION
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INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
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INDUSTRIALIZATION
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INFECTIOUS DISEASES
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INTERFERON
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INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON NUTRITION
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INTERVENTION
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IODINE
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IODINE DEFICIENCY
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IRON
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IRON DEFICIENCY
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LAND RESOURCES
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LEADING CAUSE OF DEATH
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LEADING CAUSES
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LEGUMES
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LEISURE TIME
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LIPIDS
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LIPOPROTEINS
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LOW BIRTH WEIGHT
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LOW FERTILITY
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MAIZE
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MALARIA
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MALNUTRITION
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MARGARINE
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MARKET PRICES
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MATERNAL NUTRITION
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MEAL
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MEASLES
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MEAT
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MEATS
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METABOLISM
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MICRONUTRIENT DEFICIENCIES
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MICRONUTRIENT MALNUTRITION
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MICRONUTRIENTS
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MILLENNIUM CHALLENGE
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MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS
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MORBIDITY
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MORTALITY
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MOTHER
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NATIONAL COUNCIL
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NATIONAL INCOME
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NATIONAL PLANS
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NUMBER OF PEOPLE
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NURSES
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NUTRIENT
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NUTRIENT INTAKE
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NUTRIENTS
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NUTRITION
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NUTRITION INTERVENTIONS
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NUTRITION POLICY
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NUTRITION PROGRAMS
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NUTRITION RESEARCH
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NUTRITIONAL DEFICIENCIES
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NUTRITIONAL STATUS
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NUTS
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OBESITY
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OBESITY PREVALENCE
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OIL
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OIL PRICES
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OVERNUTRITION
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PASTEURIZATION
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PATIENT
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PEDIATRICS
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PEER PRESSURE
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PESTICIDES
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PHYSICAL ACTIVITY
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PHYSICAL WORK
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PHYSICIANS
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PLANS OF ACTION
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POLICY DECISIONS
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POLICY FRAMEWORK
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POLICY GUIDANCE
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POPULATION GROWTH
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POTATO
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POTATOES
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PRACTITIONERS
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PREGNANCY
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PRESCHOOL CHILDREN
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PRESERVATIVES
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PRICE CURVES
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PROCESSED FOODS
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PRODUCERS
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PROGRESS
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PROTEIN
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PROTEINS
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PUBLIC HEALTH
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REFINING
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REPRODUCTIVE AGE
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RESEARCH AGENDA
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RESPIRATORY DISEASES
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RESTAURANTS
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RICE
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RISK FACTORS
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RURAL AREAS
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RURAL POPULATIONS
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SANITATION
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SEAFOOD
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SMOKING
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SNACK FOODS
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SNACKS
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SOCIAL MARKETING
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SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS
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SOFT DRINKS
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STABILIZERS
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STAPLE FOODS
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STARCH
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STREET FOODS
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STRUCTURAL ADJUSTMENT
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SUGAR
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SUGARS
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SUPERMARKET
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SUPERMARKETS
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SWEETENERS
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TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE
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TOLERANCE
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TV
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UNDERNUTRITION
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UNFPA
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UNPROCESSED FOODS
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URBAN AREAS
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URBAN POPULATIONS
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URBANIZATION
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VEGETABLE OILS
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VEGETABLES
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VITAMIN
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VITAMIN A
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VITAMIN B12
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VITAMIN B12 DEFICIENCY
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dc.subject
WAGES
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WALKING
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WHEAT
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WORKFORCE
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WORKPLACE
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WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION
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WORLD POPULATION
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YOUNG CHILD
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YOUNG CHILDREN
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dc.title
The Double Burden of Malnutrition
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dc.title.subtitle
A Review of Global Evidence
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dc.type
Working Paper
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okr.date.disclosure
2012-07-15
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okr.doctype
Publications & Research :: Working Paper
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okr.doctype
Publications & Research
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okr.docurl
http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/905651468339879888/The-double-burden-of-malnutrition-a-review-of-global-evidence
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okr.googlescholar.linkpresent
yes
okr.identifier.externaldocumentum
000445729_20130715150604
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okr.identifier.internaldocumentum
18004669
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okr.identifier.report
79525
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okr.imported
true
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okr.pdfurl
http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/905651468339879888/pdf/795250WP0Doubl00Box037737900PUBLIC0.pdf
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okr.topic
Health, Nutrition and Population :: Health Monitoring & Evaluation
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okr.topic
Health, Nutrition and Population :: Nutrition
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okr.unit
Health and Nutrition (ECSH1)
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