Publication: Assessing Basic Education Service Delivery in the Philippines: Public Education Expenditure Tracking and Quantitative Service Delivery Study

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World Bank Group
Over the last decade, the Government of the Philippines has embarked on an ambitious education reform program to ensure that all Filipinos have the opportunity to obtain the skills that they need to play a full and productive role in society. The government has backed up these reforms, particularly over the last five years, with substantial increases in investment in the education sector. Between 2010 and 2015, spending on basic education increased by 60 percent in real terms, and per student funding levels has increased considerably. Increases in the availability of key inputs have also significantly increased access to basic education. The results showed that the quality of education in the country was low, with only around one-third of elementary and secondary school students being able to reach the lowest international benchmark in mathematics. Recent detailed studies of education spending in the Philippines have confirmed the need for more spending to enable existing schools to meet national education norms and standards. The purpose of this study is to assess the quality of basic education services and the systems used to allocate and manage public education resources. While small-scale qualitative studies have been conducted to look at particular public funding flows, there has been no previous attempt to comprehensively assess the strengths and weaknesses of the systems that manage and govern the use of public education funding. This study aims to fill this gap and to provide detailed evidence on the extent to which these systems are effective in handling key items of public spending. The study also aims to provide a snapshot of the availability and quality of key education inputs at the school level and to evaluate whether these resources are distributed equitably across schools. The outline of the report provides the context of the study and documents recent trends in basic education spending. It also shows in detail how recent spending increases have affected education outcomes. In line with agreements between the study team and key stakeholders while the study was being designed, the findings are presented as a series of seven policy notes: Policy Note 1: Assessing Systems for Hiring and Deploying Teachers reports on new teacher allocations, hiring processes, and salaries. Policy Note 2: Developing a Proficient and Motivated Teacher Workforce reports on the funds available for and the provision of professional development opportunities for teachers. Policy Note 3: Building Better Learning Environments reports on school infrastructure spending. Policy Note 4: Assessing School-based Management evaluates how well school-based management institutions and processes are working. Policy Note 5: Providing Schools with Adequate Resources to Deliver Quality Education reports on the provision and use of funds to cover school maintenance and operating expenses (MOOE). Policy Note 6: Assessing the Role Played by Local Government in Supporting Basic Education reports on the funding provided for basic education by local governments. Policy Note 7: Understanding the Drivers of Public School Performance and Efficiency examines school efficiency and explores associations between efficiency, performance, and the explanatory factors highlighted in the other policy notes. Finally, a short conclusion draws together the key findings and policy recommendations contained in the separate policy notes.
World Bank Group. 2016. Assessing Basic Education Service Delivery in the Philippines; Assessing Basic Education Service Delivery in the Philippines : Public Education Expenditure Tracking and Quantitative Service Delivery Study. © World Bank, Washington, DC. License: CC BY 3.0 IGO.
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