Working Paper

Employer Voices, Employer Demands, and Implications for Public Skills Development Policy : Connecting the Labor and Education Sectors

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collection.link.5
https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/9
collection.name.5
Policy Research Working Papers
dc.contributor.author
Cunningham, Wendy
dc.contributor.author
Villasenor, Paula
dc.date.accessioned
2016-03-09T22:56:10Z
dc.date.available
2016-03-09T22:56:10Z
dc.date.issued
2016-02
dc.description.abstract
Educators believe that they are adequately preparing youth for the labor market while at the same time employers lament the students’ lack of skills. A possible source of the mismatch in perceptions is that employers and educators have different understandings of the types of skills valued in the labor market. Using economics and psychology literature to define four skills sets—socio-emotional, higher-order cognitive, basic cognitive, and technical—this paper reviews the literature that quantitatively measures employer skill demand, as reported in a preference survey. A sample of 27 studies reveals remarkable consistency across the world in the skills demanded by employers. While employers value all skill sets, there is a greater demand for socio-emotional skills and higher-order cognitive skills than for basic cognitive or technical skills. These results are robust across region, industry, occupation, and education level. Employers perceive that the greatest skills gaps are in socio-emotional and higher-order cognitive skills. These findings suggest the need to re-conceptualize the public sector’s role in preparing children for a future labor market. Namely, technical training is not equivalent to job training; instead, a broad range of skills, many of which are best taught long before labor market entry, should be included in school curricula from the earliest ages. The skills most demanded by employers— higher-order cognitive skills and socio-emotional skills—are largely learned or refined in adolescence, arguing for a general education well into secondary school until these skills are formed. Finally, the public sector can provide programming and incentives to non-school actors, namely parents and employers, to encourage them to invest in the skills development process. Skills, labor demand, cognitive, non-cognitive, behavioral skills, competences, employer surveys, skills policy, education policy, training policy.
en
dc.identifier
http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/2016/02/25994096/employer-voices-employer-demands-implications-public-skills-development-policy-connecting-labor-education-sectors
dc.identifier.uri
http://hdl.handle.net/10986/23921
dc.language
English
dc.language.iso
en_US
dc.publisher
World Bank, Washington, DC
dc.relation.ispartofseries
Policy Research Working Paper;No. 7582
dc.rights
CC BY 3.0 IGO
dc.rights.holder
World Bank
dc.rights.uri
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/igo/
dc.subject
SKILLS
dc.subject
COMPUTER LITERACY
dc.subject
SKILLS FOR EMPLOYMENT
dc.subject
CAREGIVERS
dc.subject
APPLIED SKILLS
dc.subject
PERSONALITY
dc.subject
TEACHERS
dc.subject
SKILLED WORKERS
dc.subject
ORAL COMMUNICATION
dc.subject
SCHOOLING
dc.subject
PSYCHOLOGY
dc.subject
EARLY CHILDHOOD DEVELOPMENT
dc.subject
NUMERACY
dc.subject
SKILLS DEVELOPMENT
dc.subject
LITERACY SURVEY
dc.subject
GROUPS
dc.subject
INTELLIGENCE
dc.subject
EDUCATIONAL ACHIEVEMENT
dc.subject
EDUCATION POLICY
dc.subject
LEVELS OF EDUCATION
dc.subject
HIGH SCHOOL
dc.subject
LIFE SKILLS
dc.subject
HIGHER EDUCATION
dc.subject
BASIC KNOWLEDGE
dc.subject
GENERAL EDUCATION
dc.subject
COMPUTER SKILLS
dc.subject
TEACHER QUALIFICATIONS
dc.subject
TRAINING PROGRAMS
dc.subject
THINKING
dc.subject
SCHOOL SETTING
dc.subject
PROFESSIONAL KNOWLEDGE
dc.subject
ADULTS
dc.subject
LANGUAGE
dc.subject
EXAMS
dc.subject
LITERACY
dc.subject
WORK EXPERIENCE
dc.subject
EDUCATION SECTOR
dc.subject
KNOWLEDGE
dc.subject
EDUCATED WORKERS
dc.subject
COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
dc.subject
CRITICAL THINKING
dc.subject
COGNITIVE TEST
dc.subject
HEAD START
dc.subject
TRAINING
dc.subject
EARLY STIMULATION
dc.subject
EDUCATORS
dc.subject
SECONDARY SCHOOLS
dc.subject
SCHOOL CLIMATE
dc.subject
ABILITY
dc.subject
SECONDARY SCHOOL
dc.subject
CHILD DEVELOPMENT
dc.subject
HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS
dc.subject
PRIMARY SCHOOLING
dc.subject
SCHOOL CURRICULUM
dc.subject
NEEDS
dc.subject
VOCATIONAL EDUCATION
dc.subject
LEARNING
dc.subject
EDUCATION SYSTEM
dc.subject
EDUCATIONAL INFRASTRUCTURE
dc.subject
JOB TRAINING
dc.subject
PRIMARY SCHOOL
dc.subject
REASONING
dc.subject
INFORMATION PROCESSING
dc.subject
TEACHING
dc.subject
DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN
dc.subject
PROBLEM SOLVING
dc.subject
DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY
dc.subject
COGNITION
dc.subject
SKILL ACQUISITION
dc.subject
STUDY
dc.subject
SKILLS ACQUISITION
dc.subject
ATTITUDES
dc.subject
SCIENCE
dc.subject
ADOLESCENCE
dc.subject
VALUES
dc.subject
PRIMARY DATA
dc.subject
SCHOOLS
dc.subject
EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS
dc.subject
PARTICIPATION
dc.subject
CURRICULA
dc.subject
LEARNING OUTCOMES
dc.subject
COGNITIVE” SKILLS
dc.subject
ACHIEVEMENT
dc.subject
EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT
dc.subject
EFFORT
dc.subject
EARLY CHILDHOOD
dc.subject
YOUTH
dc.subject
DECISION MAKING
dc.subject
PRESCHOOL EDUCATION
dc.subject
SCHOOL CURRICULA
dc.subject
PEDAGOGICAL METHODS
dc.subject
NUTRITION
dc.subject
INFORMATION‐PROCESSING
dc.subject
SCHOOL IMPROVEMENT
dc.subject
ADOLESCENTS
dc.subject
ELEMENTARY SCHOOL
dc.subject
SCHOOL SCHOOLS
dc.subject
SCHOOL CLUBS
dc.subject
CURRICULUM
dc.subject
TEACHER
dc.subject
SCHOOL ACTIVITIES
dc.subject
NEW ENTRANTS
dc.subject
BASIC LITERACY
dc.subject
ETHICS
dc.subject
EDUCATION PROVIDERS
dc.subject
PERCEPTION
dc.subject
COGNITIVE SKILLS
dc.subject
WRITING
dc.subject
UNDERSTANDING
dc.subject
CHILDREN
dc.subject
EDUCATION
dc.subject
SKILL DEVELOPMENT
dc.subject
CREATIVITY
dc.subject
REGIONAL EDUCATION
dc.subject
INVESTMENT
dc.subject
ACADEMIC LEARNING
dc.subject
PERSONALITY TRAITS
dc.subject
BASIC NUMERACY
dc.subject
BASIC SKILLS
dc.subject
PERFORMANCE
dc.subject
EXPERIENCE
dc.subject
INSTRUCTION
dc.subject
CHILDHOOD DEVELOPMENT
dc.subject
TEACHING METHODS
dc.subject
GIRLS
dc.subject
STUDENTS
dc.subject
EARLY ENRICHMENT
dc.subject
COMMUNICATION
dc.subject
LEADERSHIP
dc.subject
INTERVENTIONS
dc.subject
BODY LANGUAGE
dc.subject
WOMEN
dc.subject
CONCEPTS
dc.subject
MEMORY
dc.subject
GLOBAL EDUCATION
dc.subject
CLASSROOM
dc.subject
SCHOOL
dc.subject
SECONDARY EDUCATION
dc.subject
ADULT LITERACY
dc.subject
HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
dc.title
Employer Voices, Employer Demands, and Implications for Public Skills Development Policy
en
dc.title.subtitle
Connecting the Labor and Education Sectors
en
dc.type
Working Paper
en
okr.date.disclosure
2016-02-29
okr.doctype
Publications & Research
okr.doctype
Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
okr.docurl
http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/2016/02/25994096/employer-voices-employer-demands-implications-public-skills-development-policy-connecting-labor-education-sectors
okr.googlescholar.linkpresent
yes
okr.identifier.doi
10.1596/1813-9450-7582
okr.identifier.externaldocumentum
090224b0841bf95f_1_0
okr.identifier.internaldocumentum
25994096
okr.identifier.report
WPS7582
okr.imported
true
okr.language.supported
en
okr.pdfurl
http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2016/02/29/090224b0841bf95f/1_0/Rendered/PDF/Employer0voice0nd0education0sectors.pdf
en
okr.topic
Social Protections and Labor :: Skills Development and Labor Force Training
okr.topic
Social Protections and Labor :: Labor Markets
okr.topic
Social Protections and Labor :: Vocational & Technical Education
okr.topic
Education :: Education For All
okr.topic
Education :: Effective Schools and Teachers
okr.unit
Operations and Strategy Team (DECOS) Development Economics Vice Presidency

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