Working Paper

SMEs, Age, and Jobs : A Review of the Literature, Metrics, and Evidence

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collection.link.5
https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/9
collection.name.5
Policy Research Working Papers
dc.contributor.author
Aga, Gemechu
dc.contributor.author
Francis, David C.
dc.contributor.author
Rodriguez Meza, Jorge
dc.date.accessioned
2015-12-18T20:52:15Z
dc.date.available
2015-12-18T20:52:15Z
dc.date.issued
2015-11
dc.date.lastModified
2021-04-23T14:04:15Z
dc.description.abstract
The subject of which firms are the key employers—and which of these create or destroy jobs at a faster rate—is eminently important for academics and policy makers. The relative importance of small versus large firms and old versus young firms has in particular been extensively debated and studied. Nevertheless, the results often hinge on the questions that are asked. Moreover, the categorical definitions used to define firm size and age, and the nature and coverage of the data used have important effects. This paper lays out the relevant definitions and metrics that are central to the debate, reviewing the main findings to date on the subject (with particular emphasis on results in developing economies). The paper adds updated results for 117 developing economies using the World Bank’s Enterprise Survey Data, finding that (i) small and medium enterprises and older establishments are the dominant employers in the nonagricultural private sector labor force in developing economies, and (ii) net job creation is negatively correlated with establishment age and, although the effect of size is also negative, its significance is sensitive to the definition and methods used.
en
dc.identifier
http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/2015/11/25462713/smes-age-jobs-review-literature-metrics-evidence
dc.identifier.uri
http://hdl.handle.net/10986/23455
dc.language
English
dc.language.iso
en_US
dc.publisher
World Bank, Washington, DC
dc.relation.ispartofseries
Policy Research Working Paper;No. 7493
dc.rights
CC BY 3.0 IGO
dc.rights.holder
World Bank
dc.rights.uri
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/igo/
dc.subject
JOBS
dc.subject
EMPLOYMENT
dc.subject
JOB CREATION RATE
dc.subject
MOTIVATION
dc.subject
ECONOMIC GROWTH
dc.subject
ACCOUNTING
dc.subject
NET JOB CREATION
dc.subject
PRODUCTION
dc.subject
EMPLOYMENT SHARE
dc.subject
FIRM SURVEY
dc.subject
INCOME
dc.subject
SERVICE SECTOR
dc.subject
FIRM DYNAMICS
dc.subject
MEDIUM ENTERPRISES
dc.subject
TOTAL LABOR FORCE
dc.subject
INFORMATION
dc.subject
CROSS- SECTIONAL DATA
dc.subject
LABOR FORCE
dc.subject
SURVIVAL RATE
dc.subject
JOB GENERATION
dc.subject
MANUFACTURERS
dc.subject
JOB
dc.subject
AGE CATEGORIES
dc.subject
EFFECTS
dc.subject
EMPLOYMENT POTENTIAL
dc.subject
LABOR STATISTICS
dc.subject
MERGERS
dc.subject
FIRM SIZE
dc.subject
TRAINING PROGRAMS
dc.subject
EMPLOYMENT SIZE
dc.subject
DRIVERS
dc.subject
SMALL BUSINESS
dc.subject
EMPLOYMENT LEVEL
dc.subject
FIRM EXIT
dc.subject
TRAINING
dc.subject
EMPLOYMENT LEVELS
dc.subject
DEVELOPMENT ECONOMICS
dc.subject
MANUFACTURING ESTABLISHMENTS
dc.subject
FIRM LEVEL
dc.subject
WORKER
dc.subject
PREVIOUS STUDIES
dc.subject
FARM EMPLOYMENT
dc.subject
LABOR PRODUCTIVITY
dc.subject
NON-FARM EMPLOYMENT
dc.subject
PRODUCTIVITY
dc.subject
JOB LOSS
dc.subject
JOB CHURNING
dc.subject
MARKETS
dc.subject
FIRM
dc.subject
ORGANIZATIONS
dc.subject
BUSINESS CYCLE
dc.subject
DOMINANT EMPLOYERS
dc.subject
LABOR
dc.subject
ENTERPRISES
dc.subject
TOTAL EMPLOYMENT
dc.subject
EMPLOYMENT CREATION
dc.subject
PREVIOUS RESULTS
dc.subject
EFFICIENCY
dc.subject
SIZE OF FIRMS
dc.subject
SMALL ENTERPRISE
dc.subject
SHOP
dc.subject
FIRM ENTRY
dc.subject
AVERAGE EMPLOYMENT SIZE
dc.subject
SMALL FIRM
dc.subject
FIRMS
dc.subject
WORKERS
dc.subject
JOB DESTRUCTION RATES
dc.subject
POLICIES
dc.subject
OWNERSHIP STRUCTURE
dc.subject
SMALL ENTERPRISES
dc.subject
TURNOVER
dc.subject
VALUE
dc.subject
PLANT SIZE
dc.subject
NET EMPLOYMENT
dc.subject
STATE-OWNED ENTERPRISES
dc.subject
JOB CREATION RATES
dc.subject
AGE GROUPS
dc.subject
CO-OPERATIVES
dc.subject
PRIVATE FIRMS
dc.subject
ENTERPRISE
dc.subject
PRODUCTIVE FIRMS
dc.subject
EMPLOYMENT GROWTH
dc.subject
JOB CREATION
dc.subject
PRIVATE SECTOR
dc.subject
DOWNWARD BIAS
dc.subject
MARKET
dc.subject
JOB FLOWS
dc.subject
ECONOMIC THEORY
dc.subject
EMPLOYERS
dc.subject
ECONOMICS
dc.subject
EXPANSION
dc.subject
JOB DESTRUCTION
dc.subject
THEORY
dc.subject
FIRM” LEVEL
dc.subject
SECURITY
dc.subject
RISK
dc.subject
JOB DESTRUCTION RATE
dc.subject
CONTRACTING
dc.subject
BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT
dc.subject
EMPLOYEE
dc.subject
INNOVATION
dc.subject
EMPLOYMENT DYNAMICS
dc.subject
LENDING
dc.subject
LABOUR REGULATION
dc.subject
SMALL FIRMS
dc.subject
SUPPLIERS
dc.subject
FIRM GROWTH
dc.subject
ENTREPRENEURSHIP
dc.subject
LABOUR
dc.subject
EMPLOYMENT GROWTH RATE
dc.subject
SMALL BUSINESSES
dc.subject
SME
dc.subject
EMPLOYEES
dc.title
SMEs, Age, and Jobs
en
dc.title.subtitle
A Review of the Literature, Metrics, and Evidence
en
dc.type
Working Paper
en
okr.date.disclosure
2015-11-13
okr.doctype
Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
okr.doctype
Publications & Research
okr.docurl
http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/2015/11/25462713/smes-age-jobs-review-literature-metrics-evidence
okr.googlescholar.linkpresent
yes
okr.identifier.doi
10.1596/1813-9450-7493
okr.identifier.externaldocumentum
090224b0831b5b16_1_0
okr.identifier.internaldocumentum
25462713
okr.identifier.report
WPS7493
okr.imported
true
okr.language.supported
en
okr.pdfurl
http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2015/11/13/090224b0831b5b16/1_0/Rendered/PDF/SMEs00age00and0etrics00and0evidence.pdf
en
okr.topic
Finance and Financial Sector Development :: Microfinance
okr.topic
Social Protections and Labor :: Labor Market
okr.topic
Social Protections and Labor :: Labor Policies
okr.topic
Social Protections and Labor :: Labor Management and Relations
okr.topic
Private Sector Development :: Small and Medium Size Enterprises
okr.unit
Global Indicators Group, Development Economics

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