Working Paper

Sources of Ethnic Inequality in Vietnam

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collection.link.5
https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/9
collection.name.5
Policy Research Working Papers
dc.contributor.author
van de Walle, Dominique
dc.contributor.author
Gunewardena, Dileni
dc.date.accessioned
2015-07-28T18:36:29Z
dc.date.available
2015-07-28T18:36:29Z
dc.date.issued
2000-03
dc.date.lastModified
2021-04-23T14:04:07Z
dc.description.abstract
Vietnam's ethnic minorities, who tend to live mostly in remote rural areas, typically have lower living standards than the ethnic majority. How much is this because of differences in economic characteristics (such as education levels and land) rather than low returns to characteristics? Is there a self-reinforcing culture of poverty in the minority groups, reflecting patterns of past discrimination? The authors find that differences in levels of living are due in part to the fact that the minorities live in less productive areas characterized by difficult terrain, poor infrastructure, less access to off-farm work and the market economy, and inferior access to education. Geographic disparities tend to persist because of immobility and regional differences in living standards. But the authors also find large differences within geographical areas even after controlling for household characteristics. They find differences in returns to productive characteristics to be the most important explanation for ethnic inequality. But the minorities do not obtain lower returns to all characteristics. There is evidence of compensating behavior. For example, pure returns to location--even in remote, inhospitable areas--tend to be higher for minorities, though not high enough to overcome the large consumption difference with the majority. The majority ethnic groups' model of income generation is a poor guide on how to fight poverty among ethnic minority groups. Nor is it enough to target poor areas to redress ethnic inequality. Policies must be designed to reach minority households in poor areas and to explicitly recognize behavior patterns (including compensating behavior) that have served the minorities well in the short term but intensify ethnic inequalities in the longer term. It will be important to open up options for minority groups both by ensuring that they are not disadvantaged (in labor markets, for example), and by changing the conditions that have caused their isolation and social exclusion.
en
dc.identifier
http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/2000/03/437905/sources-ethnic-inequality-vietnam
dc.identifier.uri
http://hdl.handle.net/10986/22315
dc.language
English
dc.language.iso
en_US
dc.publisher
World Bank, Washington, DC
dc.relation.ispartofseries
Policy Research Working Paper;No. 2297
dc.rights
CC BY 3.0 IGO
dc.rights.holder
World Bank
dc.rights.uri
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/igo/
dc.subject
AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION
dc.subject
AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH
dc.subject
AGRICULTURE
dc.subject
CASE STUDIES
dc.subject
COMMODITIES
dc.subject
COMMUNITY CHARACTERISTICS
dc.subject
COMMUNITY LEVEL
dc.subject
COMPARATIVE ADVANTAGE
dc.subject
CONSUMPTION EXPENDITURES
dc.subject
CROPS
dc.subject
CURRICULA
dc.subject
DATA COLLECTION
dc.subject
DATA SET
dc.subject
DECENTRALIZATION
dc.subject
DEMOGRAPHIC EFFECTS
dc.subject
DEMOGRAPHICS
dc.subject
DEPENDENT VARIABLE
dc.subject
DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
dc.subject
DEVELOPING COUNTRY
dc.subject
DEVELOPMENT POLICIES
dc.subject
DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME
dc.subject
DISADVANTAGED GROUPS
dc.subject
ECONOMIC ANALYSIS
dc.subject
ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS
dc.subject
ECONOMIC DATA
dc.subject
ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
dc.subject
ECONOMICS
dc.subject
EDUCATION LEVEL
dc.subject
EDUCATION LEVELS
dc.subject
EDUCATION SERVICES
dc.subject
EDUCATION SYSTEM
dc.subject
EMPLOYMENT
dc.subject
EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES
dc.subject
ESCAPE POVERTY
dc.subject
ETHNIC GROUP
dc.subject
ETHNIC GROUPS
dc.subject
ETHNIC MINORITIES
dc.subject
ETHNIC MINORITY GROUPS
dc.subject
EXTERNALITIES
dc.subject
FARMERS
dc.subject
FISH
dc.subject
FOREST PRODUCTS
dc.subject
GENDER
dc.subject
GEOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS
dc.subject
GEOGRAPHICAL AREA
dc.subject
GEOGRAPHICAL AREAS
dc.subject
GEOGRAPHICAL COVERAGE
dc.subject
HEALTH CARE
dc.subject
HOUSEHOLD CHARACTERISTICS
dc.subject
HOUSEHOLD HEAD
dc.subject
HOUSEHOLD INCOME
dc.subject
HOUSEHOLD LABOR
dc.subject
HOUSEHOLD LEVEL
dc.subject
HOUSEHOLD SIZE
dc.subject
HOUSEHOLD SURVEY
dc.subject
HOUSEHOLD WELFARE
dc.subject
HOUSING
dc.subject
HUMAN CAPITAL
dc.subject
INCOME
dc.subject
INCOME GENERATION
dc.subject
INCOME INEQUALITY
dc.subject
INCOMES
dc.subject
INDIVIDUAL LIVING STANDARDS
dc.subject
INFORMAL SECTORS
dc.subject
LABOR MARKET
dc.subject
LABOR MARKETS
dc.subject
LIVELIHOODS
dc.subject
LIVING STANDARDS
dc.subject
LIVING STANDARDS MEASUREMENT
dc.subject
LOCAL REALITIES
dc.subject
LOW INCOME
dc.subject
MARKET ECONOMY
dc.subject
MARKET MECHANISM
dc.subject
MINORITY GROUPS
dc.subject
NEGATIVE IMPACT
dc.subject
NON-FARM EMPLOYMENT
dc.subject
POLICY IMPLICATIONS
dc.subject
POLICY MAKING
dc.subject
POLICY RESEARCH
dc.subject
POLICY RESPONSE
dc.subject
POLITICAL INFLUENCE
dc.subject
POOR AREAS
dc.subject
POVERTY LINE
dc.subject
POVERTY LINES
dc.subject
PRIMARY EDUCATION
dc.subject
PUBLIC SERVICES
dc.subject
RURAL AREAS
dc.subject
RURAL DEVELOPMENT
dc.subject
RURAL ECONOMY
dc.subject
RURAL HOUSEHOLDS
dc.subject
SHORT TERM
dc.subject
SOCIAL EXCLUSION
dc.subject
STATISTICAL OFFICE
dc.subject
SURVIVAL STRATEGIES
dc.subject
TEACHERS
dc.subject
TECHNICAL SUPPORT
dc.subject
UNIVERSITY EDUCATION
dc.subject
URBAN AREAS
dc.subject
WAGE DIFFERENTIALS
dc.subject
WAGES
dc.subject
WORK EXPERIENCE
dc.title
Sources of Ethnic Inequality in Vietnam
en
dc.type
Working Paper
en
okr.date.disclosure
2010-07-01
okr.doctype
Publications & Research
okr.doctype
Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
okr.docurl
http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/2000/03/437905/sources-ethnic-inequality-vietnam
okr.globalpractice
Social Protection and Labor
okr.globalpractice
Poverty
okr.googlescholar.linkpresent
yes
okr.identifier.doi
10.1596/1813-9450-2297
okr.identifier.externaldocumentum
000094946_00040605325051
okr.identifier.internaldocumentum
437905
okr.identifier.report
WPS2297
okr.language.supported
en
okr.pdfurl
/IB/2000/04/24/000094946_00040605325051/additional/113513323_20041118104416.pdf
en
okr.region.administrative
East Asia and Pacific
okr.region.country
Vietnam
okr.sector
Other Social Protection
okr.sector
Health and other social services
okr.sector
Health and other social services :: Other social services
okr.topic
Gender :: Gender and Economics
okr.topic
Poverty Reduction :: Equity and Development
okr.topic
Poverty Reduction :: Inequality
okr.topic
Poverty Reduction :: Poverty Assessment
okr.topic
Rural Development :: Rural Labor Markets
okr.topic
Rural Development :: Rural Poverty Reduction Strategies
okr.unit
Public Economics and Rural Development, Development Research Group

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