The Economic Cost of Stigma and the Exclusion of LGBT People : A Case Study of India

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collection.link.213
https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/11866
collection.name.213
Other papers
dc.contributor.author
Badgett, M.V. Lee
dc.date.accessioned
2015-02-26T14:42:06Z
dc.date.available
2015-02-26T14:42:06Z
dc.date.issued
2014-10-03
dc.date.lastModified
2021-04-23T14:04:02Z
dc.description.abstract
Human rights and equality for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people are usually considered through a social, cultural, or ethical lens, but equality and inclusion of LGBT people are also economic development issues. This report develops a model to estimate the economic cost of stigma; negative attitudes toward LGBT people and the exclusion of LGBT people in social institutions such as education, employment, families, and health care. The model is applied to a case study of India. Three major findings emerge from this report. First, there is clear evidence of stigma and exclusion exists for LGBT people in India. Data on public opinion from 2006 shows that 41 percent of Indians would not want a homosexual neighbor, and 64 percent believe that homosexuality is never justified. Negative attitudes have diminished over time, however. Second, the effects of stigma and exclusion are potentially costly to economies. A conceptual model links exclusion of LGBT people and economic development through (1) lower productivity and lower output as a result of employment discrimination and constraints on labor supply; (2) inefficient investment in human capital because of lower returns to education and discrimination in educational settings; (3) lost output as a result of health disparities that are linked to exclusion; and (4) social and health services required to address the effects of exclusion that might be better spent elsewhere. Third and lastly, in India, existing research does not allow for a precise estimate of the cost of LGBT exclusion, but the cost could be substantial. The loss of labor productivity and output because of employment discrimination and the loss of life years due to early death or disability will reduce the economic output of the Indian economy. With better research on the lived experiences of LGBT people, researchers could use existing analytical tools to estimate the total cost of LGBT exclusion.
en
dc.identifier
http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/2014/10/23952131/economic-cost-stigma-exclusion-lgbt-people-case-study-india
dc.identifier.uri
http://hdl.handle.net/10986/21515
dc.language
English
dc.language.iso
en_US
dc.publisher
World Bank, Washington, DC
dc.rights
CC BY 3.0 IGO
dc.rights.uri
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/igo/
dc.subject
ACCESS TO EMPLOYMENT
dc.subject
ACCESS TO JOBS
dc.subject
AFFIRMATIVE ACTION
dc.subject
AGED
dc.subject
AID
dc.subject
ASYLUM
dc.subject
BARRIERS TO PARTICIPATION
dc.subject
BIRTHS
dc.subject
BISEXUAL
dc.subject
BISEXUALS
dc.subject
CLIMATE CHANGE
dc.subject
COMMERCIAL SEX
dc.subject
COMMERCIAL SEX WORK
dc.subject
COMPENSATION
dc.subject
CONTEXT OF MARRIAGE
dc.subject
COURT
dc.subject
COURT DECISIONS
dc.subject
CRIMINAL
dc.subject
CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM
dc.subject
CRIMINALITY
dc.subject
CRIMINALIZATION
dc.subject
DEPRESSION
dc.subject
DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
dc.subject
DEVELOPMENT INTERVENTIONS
dc.subject
DISABILITY
dc.subject
DISCRIMINATION
dc.subject
DISCRIMINATORY TREATMENT
dc.subject
DOMESTIC VIOLENCE
dc.subject
DRUGS
dc.subject
EARLY DEATH
dc.subject
ECONOMIC DISCRIMINATION
dc.subject
ECONOMIC GROWTH
dc.subject
ECONOMIC PRODUCTIVITY
dc.subject
ECONOMIC RESOURCES
dc.subject
ECONOMIC STATUS
dc.subject
EDUCATED GROUPS
dc.subject
EDUCATIONAL ACHIEVEMENT
dc.subject
EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT
dc.subject
EMOTIONAL SUPPORT
dc.subject
EMPLOYMENT DISCRIMINATION
dc.subject
EPIDEMIC
dc.subject
EQUAL TREATMENT
dc.subject
FAMILIES
dc.subject
FAMILY FORMATION
dc.subject
FAMILY HEALTH
dc.subject
FAMILY SUPPORT
dc.subject
FEMALE
dc.subject
FORMAL EDUCATION
dc.subject
GAY
dc.subject
GAY MEN
dc.subject
GENDER
dc.subject
GENDER EQUITY
dc.subject
GENDER IDENTITIES
dc.subject
GENDER IDENTITY
dc.subject
GENDER INEQUITY
dc.subject
GENDER NORMS
dc.subject
GOVERNMENT PROGRAMS
dc.subject
HARASSMENT
dc.subject
HEALTH CARE
dc.subject
HEALTH CARE PROVIDERS
dc.subject
HEALTH CARE SERVICES
dc.subject
HEALTH CARE SYSTEM
dc.subject
HEALTH OUTCOMES
dc.subject
HEALTH PROBLEMS
dc.subject
HEALTH SERVICES
dc.subject
HEALTH STATUS
dc.subject
HIV
dc.subject
HIV INFECTION
dc.subject
HIV/AIDS
dc.subject
HOME
dc.subject
HOMELESSNESS
dc.subject
HOMOSEXUALITY
dc.subject
HOMOSEXUALS
dc.subject
HUMAN ACTIVITY
dc.subject
HUMAN CAPITAL
dc.subject
HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
dc.subject
HUMAN RIGHTS
dc.subject
HUMAN RIGHTS COMMISSION
dc.subject
HUMAN RIGHTS DISCOURSE
dc.subject
HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATIONS
dc.subject
HUSBAND
dc.subject
HUSBANDS
dc.subject
ILLITERACY
dc.subject
ILLITERACY RATE
dc.subject
IMPRISONMENT
dc.subject
INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT
dc.subject
INEQUALITY
dc.subject
INEQUITIES
dc.subject
INFERIOR STATUS
dc.subject
INFORMAL ECONOMY
dc.subject
INFORMAL SECTOR
dc.subject
INHERITANCE
dc.subject
INVESTMENT IN CHILDREN
dc.subject
INVESTMENTS IN EDUCATION
dc.subject
JOB TRAINING
dc.subject
JUSTICE
dc.subject
LABOR FORCE
dc.subject
LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION
dc.subject
LABOR MARKET
dc.subject
LABOR SUPPLY
dc.subject
LABORERS
dc.subject
LAWS
dc.subject
LEGAL RIGHTS
dc.subject
LEGAL SERVICES
dc.subject
LEGAL STATUS
dc.subject
LEGISLATION
dc.subject
LESBIAN
dc.subject
LESBIANS
dc.subject
LEVEL OF EDUCATION
dc.subject
LEVELS OF EDUCATION
dc.subject
LITERACY RATES
dc.subject
LIVING CONDITIONS
dc.subject
LONGER LIVES
dc.subject
MARRIAGES
dc.subject
MARRIED MEN
dc.subject
MEDICAL CARE
dc.subject
MENTAL
dc.subject
METAANALYSIS
dc.subject
MINORITY
dc.subject
NATIONAL AIDS
dc.subject
NATIONAL POPULATION
dc.subject
OLDER AGE GROUPS
dc.subject
PATIENTS
dc.subject
PENAL CODE
dc.subject
PENSION
dc.subject
PHYSICAL HEALTH
dc.subject
PHYSICAL VIOLENCE
dc.subject
POLITICAL PARTICIPATION
dc.subject
POLITICAL PROCESS
dc.subject
POPULATION ESTIMATES
dc.subject
POPULATION GROUPS
dc.subject
PRIVACY
dc.subject
PROPERTY RIGHTS
dc.subject
PSYCHOLOGY
dc.subject
PUBLIC AWARENESS
dc.subject
PUBLIC HEALTH
dc.subject
PUBLIC OPINION
dc.subject
QUALITY OF CARE
dc.subject
QUALITY OF LIFE
dc.subject
REPRODUCTIVE RIGHTS
dc.subject
RESEARCH METHODS
dc.subject
RESEARCH PROJECTS
dc.subject
RESPECT
dc.subject
RURAL AREAS
dc.subject
SAME SEX
dc.subject
SAME-SEX COUPLES
dc.subject
SECONDARY SCHOOLS
dc.subject
SEX
dc.subject
SEX COUPLES
dc.subject
SEX PARTNERS
dc.subject
SEX WITH MEN
dc.subject
SEX WORKERS
dc.subject
SEXUAL ACTIVITIES
dc.subject
SEXUAL ACTIVITY
dc.subject
SEXUAL ASSAULT
dc.subject
SEXUAL BEHAVIOR
dc.subject
SEXUAL ORIENTATION
dc.subject
SEXUAL PRACTICES
dc.subject
SINGLE WOMEN
dc.subject
SKILLED WORKERS
dc.subject
SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT
dc.subject
SOCIAL EXCLUSION
dc.subject
SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS
dc.subject
SOCIAL SCIENCE
dc.subject
SOCIAL SECURITY
dc.subject
SOCIAL SERVICES
dc.subject
SOCIAL STATUS
dc.subject
SOCIAL WELFARE
dc.subject
SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS
dc.subject
SPOUSE
dc.subject
SPOUSES
dc.subject
SUICIDE
dc.subject
THIRD GENDER
dc.subject
TOLERANCE
dc.subject
TRAINING OPPORTUNITIES
dc.subject
UNEMPLOYMENT
dc.subject
UNITED NATIONS
dc.subject
UNMARRIED WOMEN
dc.subject
URBAN AREAS
dc.subject
VIOLENCE
dc.subject
WAGE DIFFERENCES
dc.subject
WAGE GAP
dc.subject
WEDDINGS
dc.subject
WILL
dc.subject
WIVES
dc.subject
WOMAN
dc.subject
WORK ENVIRONMENT
dc.subject
WORKERS
dc.subject
WORKFORCE
dc.subject
WORKPLACE
dc.subject
YOUNG MEN
dc.subject
YOUNG PEOPLE
dc.subject
YOUNG WOMEN
dc.title
The Economic Cost of Stigma and the Exclusion of LGBT People : A Case Study of India
en
okr.crosscuttingsolutionarea
Gender
okr.date.disclosure
2015-02-03
okr.doctype
Publications & Research
okr.doctype
Publications & Research :: Working Paper
okr.docurl
http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/2014/10/23952131/economic-cost-stigma-exclusion-lgbt-people-case-study-india
okr.globalpractice
Social Protection and Labor
okr.googlescholar.linkpresent
yes
okr.identifier.externaldocumentum
000477144_20150203155141
okr.identifier.internaldocumentum
23952131
okr.identifier.report
94040
okr.language.supported
en
okr.pdfurl
http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2015/02/03/000477144_20150203155141/Rendered/PDF/940400WP0Box380usion0of0LGBT0People.pdf
en
okr.region.administrative
South Asia
okr.region.country
India
okr.sector
Education
okr.sector
Health and other social services :: Health
okr.sector
Health and other social services :: Other social services
okr.theme
Social dev/gender/inclusion :: Gender
okr.theme
Social dev/gender/inclusion :: Other social development
okr.theme
Human development :: Education for all
okr.theme
Human development :: Other human development
okr.theme
Human development :: HIV/AIDS
okr.topic
Health Monitoring and Evaluation
okr.topic
Gender :: Gender and Development
okr.topic
Gender :: Gender and Health
okr.topic
Gender :: Gender and Law
okr.topic
Health, Nutrition and Population :: Population Policies
okr.unit
South Asia, Social Development

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