Who Owns the Media?

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collection.link.5
https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/9
collection.name.5
Policy Research Working Papers
dc.contributor.author
Djankov, Simeon
dc.contributor.author
McLeish, Caralee
dc.contributor.author
Nenova, Tatiana
dc.contributor.author
Shleifer, Andrei
dc.date.accessioned
2014-08-21T20:16:39Z
dc.date.available
2014-08-21T20:16:39Z
dc.date.issued
2001-06
dc.description.abstract
The authors examine patterns of media ownership in 97 countries around the world. They find that almost universally the largest media firms are controlled by the government or by private families. Government ownership is more pervasive in broadcasting than in the printed media. Government ownership is generally associated with less press freedom, fewer political and economic rights, inferior governance, and, most conspicuously, inferior social outcomes in education and health. The adverse effects of government ownership on political and economic freedom are stronger for newspapers than for television. The adverse effects of government ownership of the media do not appear to be restricted solely to instances of government monopoly. The authors present a range of evidence on the adverse consequences of state ownership of the media. State ownership of the media is often argued to be justified on behalf of the social needs of the disadvantaged. But if their findings are correct, increasing private ownership of the media--through privatization or by encouraging the entry of privately owned media--can advance a variety of political and economic goals, especially those of meeting the social needs of the poor.
en
dc.identifier
http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/2001/06/1490082/owns-media
dc.identifier.uri
http://hdl.handle.net/10986/19605
dc.language
English
dc.language.iso
en_US
dc.publisher
World Bank, Washington, DC
dc.relation.ispartofseries
Policy Research Working Paper;No. 2620
dc.rights
CC BY 3.0 IGO
dc.rights.uri
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/igo/
dc.subject
ADVERSE CONSEQUENCES
dc.subject
ADVERSE EFFECTS
dc.subject
ADVERTISING
dc.subject
AGRICULTURE
dc.subject
AIR
dc.subject
AUDIENCE
dc.subject
BROADCAST
dc.subject
BROADCASTERS
dc.subject
BROADCASTING
dc.subject
BROADCASTING SYSTEMS
dc.subject
BROADCASTS
dc.subject
BUSINESS ASSOCIATIONS
dc.subject
CENSORSHIP
dc.subject
CITIZENS
dc.subject
COMMUNISTS
dc.subject
CONSTITUTION
dc.subject
CONSUMERS
dc.subject
CORRUPTION
dc.subject
DATA GATHERING
dc.subject
DATA SOURCES
dc.subject
DECISION MAKING
dc.subject
DEMOCRACY
dc.subject
DEMOCRATIC COUNTRIES
dc.subject
DEVELOPMENT ECONOMICS
dc.subject
DICTATORSHIP
dc.subject
DISCLOSURE
dc.subject
ECONOMIC THEORY
dc.subject
ECONOMIES OF SCALE
dc.subject
FAMILIES
dc.subject
FINANCIAL BENEFITS
dc.subject
FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS
dc.subject
FINANCIAL MARKETS
dc.subject
FIXED COSTS
dc.subject
FOREIGN OWNERSHIP
dc.subject
FOREIGN PARTICIPATION
dc.subject
GNP
dc.subject
GNP PER CAPITA
dc.subject
GOVERNMENT MONOPOLIES
dc.subject
GOVERNMENT OWNERSHIP
dc.subject
HEAD OF STATE
dc.subject
HUMAN RIGHTS
dc.subject
INCOME
dc.subject
INCOME LEVELS
dc.subject
INCREASING RETURNS
dc.subject
INFORMATION SERVICES
dc.subject
INTERMEDIARIES
dc.subject
JOURNALISTS
dc.subject
LARGE SHAREHOLDERS
dc.subject
LAWS
dc.subject
LEGAL ENTITIES
dc.subject
LITERACY
dc.subject
MARGINAL COSTS
dc.subject
MEDIA
dc.subject
MEDIA INDUSTRIES
dc.subject
MONOPOLY
dc.subject
MORTALITY
dc.subject
NATIONALIZATION
dc.subject
NATIONS
dc.subject
NEWS REPORTS
dc.subject
NEWSPRINT
dc.subject
OWNERSHIP STRUCTURE
dc.subject
PER CAPITA INCOME
dc.subject
POLITICAL PARTIES
dc.subject
POLITICAL PROCESS
dc.subject
POLITICIANS
dc.subject
PRESENTATIONS
dc.subject
PRIVATE OWNERSHIP
dc.subject
PRIVATE SECTOR
dc.subject
PROGRAMMING
dc.subject
PROPERTY RIGHTS
dc.subject
PUBLIC GOOD
dc.subject
PUBLIC OPINION
dc.subject
PUBLIC SERVICE
dc.subject
PUBLISHERS
dc.subject
PUBLISHING
dc.subject
RADIO
dc.subject
RADIO OWNERSHIP
dc.subject
RADIO STATION
dc.subject
RADIO STATIONS
dc.subject
REVOLUTION
dc.subject
SOCIAL ISSUES
dc.subject
SOCIAL POLICY
dc.subject
STATE CONTROL
dc.subject
STATE ENTERPRISES
dc.subject
STATE GOVERNMENT
dc.subject
STATE INTERVENTION
dc.subject
STATE OWNERSHIP
dc.subject
STATE SUBSIDIES
dc.subject
TELEVISION
dc.subject
TELEVISION BROADCASTING
dc.subject
TELEVISION CHANNELS
dc.subject
TELEVISION STATIONS
dc.subject
TRANSITION ECONOMIES
dc.subject
VOTERS
dc.subject
VOTING
dc.title
Who Owns the Media?
en
okr.date.disclosure
2001-06-30
okr.doctype
Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
okr.doctype
Publications & Research
okr.docurl
http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/2001/06/1490082/owns-media
okr.globalpractice
Education
okr.globalpractice
Transport and ICT
okr.globalpractice
Governance
okr.globalpractice
Health, Nutrition, and Population
okr.googlescholar.linkpresent
yes
okr.identifier.doi
10.1596/1813-9450-2620
okr.identifier.externaldocumentum
000094946_01070604285972
okr.identifier.internaldocumentum
1490082
okr.identifier.report
WPS2620
okr.language.supported
en
okr.pdfurl
http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2001/07/28/000094946_01070604285972/Rendered/PDF/multi0page.pdf
en
okr.topic
Information and Communication Technologies :: Broadcast and Media
okr.topic
Economic Theory and Research
okr.topic
Health Monitoring and Evaluation
okr.topic
Education :: Educational Technology and Distance Education
okr.topic
Health, Nutrition and Population :: Public Health Promotion
okr.topic
Information and Communication Technologies :: ICT Policy and Strategies
okr.topic
Governance :: National Governance
okr.unit
Office of the Senior Vice President, Development Economics (DECVP)
okr.volume
1

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