Journal Article

Gender and Agriculture : Inefficiencies, Segregation, and Low Productivity Traps

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collection.link.103
https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/2212
collection.name.103
B. World Bank Research Observer
dc.contributor.author
Croppenstedt, Andre
dc.contributor.author
Goldstein, Markus
dc.contributor.author
Rosas, Nina
dc.date.accessioned
2014-08-20T16:48:57Z
dc.date.available
2014-08-20T16:48:57Z
dc.date.issued
2013-02
dc.date.lastModified
2021-04-23T14:03:52Z
dc.description.abstract
Women make essential contributions to agriculture in developing countries, where they constitute approximately 43 percent of the agricultural labor force. However, female farmers typically have lower output per unit of land and are much less likely to be active in commercial farming than their male counterparts. These gender differences in land productivity and participation between male and female farmers are due to gender differences in access to inputs, resources, and services. In this paper, we review the evidence on productivity differences and access to resources. We discuss some of the reasons for these differences, such as differences in property rights, education, control over resources (e.g., land), access to inputs and services (e.g., fertilizer, extension, and credit), and social norms. Although women are less active in commercial farming and are largely excluded from contract farming, they often provide the bulk of wage labor in the nontraditional export sector. In general, gender gaps do not appear to fall systematically with growth, and they appear to rise with GDP per capita and with greater access to resources and inputs. Active policies that support women's access and participation, not just greater overall access, are essential if these gaps are to be closed. The gains in terms of greater productivity of land and overall production are likely to be large.
en
dc.identifier.citation
World Bank Research Observer
dc.identifier.issn
1564-6971
dc.identifier.uri
http://hdl.handle.net/10986/19493
dc.language.iso
en_US
dc.publisher
Oxford University Press on behalf of the World Bank
dc.rights
CC BY-NC-ND 3.0 IGO
dc.rights.holder
World Bank
dc.rights.uri
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/igo/
dc.subject
agricultural extension
dc.subject
agricultural extension centers
dc.subject
agricultural information
dc.subject
agricultural production
dc.subject
agriculture
dc.subject
crops
dc.subject
diet
dc.subject
equipment
dc.subject
extension
dc.subject
extension services
dc.subject
farmers
dc.subject
farms
dc.subject
fertilizers
dc.subject
gender
dc.subject
incomes
dc.subject
land development
dc.subject
land reform
dc.subject
livestock
dc.subject
new technologies
dc.subject
scientists
dc.title
Gender and Agriculture : Inefficiencies, Segregation, and Low Productivity Traps
en
dc.type
Journal Article
en
okr.crosscuttingsolutionarea
Gender
okr.date.disclosure
2014-08-01
okr.doctype
Publications & Research :: Journal Article
okr.globalpractice
Macroeconomics and Fiscal Management
okr.globalpractice
Social, Urban, Rural and Resilience
okr.globalpractice
Governance
okr.globalpractice
Transport and ICT
okr.globalpractice
Health, Nutrition, and Population
okr.googlescholar.linkpresent
yes
okr.identifier.doi
10.1093/wbro/lks024
okr.journal.nbpages
79-109
okr.language.supported
en
okr.peerreview
Academic Peer Review
okr.relation.associatedurl
https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/13171
okr.topic
Culture and Development :: Anthropology
okr.topic
Gender :: Gender and Development
okr.topic
Gender :: Gender and Health
okr.topic
Gender :: Gender and Law
okr.topic
Macroeconomics and Economic Growth :: Regional Economic Development
okr.topic
Rural Development :: Regional Rural Development
okr.topic
Rural Development :: Rural Development Knowledge & Information Systems
okr.topic
Agriculture :: Crops & Crop Management Systems
okr.topic
Communities and Human Settlements :: Housing & Human Habitats
okr.topic
Macroeconomics and Economic Growth :: Political Economy
okr.volume
28(1)

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