Trends in the Education Sector from 1993–98

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collection.link.5
https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/9
collection.name.5
Policy Research Working Papers
dc.contributor.author
Nga Nguyet Nguyen
dc.date.accessioned
2014-08-08T21:42:50Z
dc.date.available
2014-08-08T21:42:50Z
dc.date.issued
2002-09
dc.date.lastModified
2021-04-23T14:03:42Z
dc.description.abstract
Vietnam has achieved remarkably high rates of school enrollment and has maintained good social indicators (infant and under-five mortality rates, life expectancy, fertility rate, child nutrition, and access to basic services) compared to other countries with similar low income per capita. The author documents and analyzes changes in enrollment and education finance in Vietnam from 1993-98. Enrollment rates increased substantially, but the increases were not equally spread across different income groups, regions, gender, and ethnic groups. The higher the level of education, the larger the gap in school enrollment among different socioeconomic groups. Although school fees were no longer compulsory at the primary level, households paid for many other school-related items, such as books, uniforms, private tutors, lunch, and transportation. These costs are a significant financial burden on the poor. On the other hand, there is considerable variation in public spending per student across regions that, when coupled with variation in enrollment rates across regions, resulted in a not pro-poor public spending pattern, although public spending on primary education was neutral in 1998. Finally, the author investigates whether rates of return to education in the private wage sector changed in the 1990s. She concludes that returns to schooling increased substantially between 1992-93 and 1997-98, especially at the upper secondary education and university levels.
en
dc.identifier
http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/2002/09/2026462/trends-education-sector-1993-98
dc.identifier.uri
http://hdl.handle.net/10986/19275
dc.language
English
dc.language.iso
en_US
dc.publisher
World Bank, Washington, DC
dc.relation.ispartofseries
Policy Research Working Paper;No. 2891
dc.rights
CC BY 3.0 IGO
dc.rights.uri
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/igo/
dc.subject
ACHIEVEMENT
dc.subject
ADDITIONAL RESOURCES
dc.subject
AGE GROUP
dc.subject
AGED
dc.subject
BASIC EDUCATION
dc.subject
BASIC SERVICES
dc.subject
BETTER-OFF HOUSEHOLDS
dc.subject
CLASSROOMS
dc.subject
COMPOSITION
dc.subject
CURRICULUM
dc.subject
DECENTRALIZATION
dc.subject
ECONOMIC GROWTH
dc.subject
EDUCATION BUDGET
dc.subject
EDUCATION FINANCE
dc.subject
EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS
dc.subject
EDUCATION LEVEL
dc.subject
EDUCATION LEVELS
dc.subject
EDUCATION SECTOR
dc.subject
EDUCATION STATISTICS
dc.subject
EDUCATIONAL DISADVANTAGE
dc.subject
ENROLLMENT
dc.subject
ENROLLMENT RATE
dc.subject
ENROLLMENT RATES
dc.subject
ENROLMENT RATE
dc.subject
ENROLMENT RATES
dc.subject
EQUAL OPPORTUNITY
dc.subject
ETHNIC GROUPS
dc.subject
ETHNIC MINORITIES
dc.subject
EXPANDED ACCESS
dc.subject
FAMILIES
dc.subject
FORMAL EDUCATION
dc.subject
GENDER DIFFERENCES
dc.subject
GENDER EQUALITY
dc.subject
GENDER GAP
dc.subject
GER
dc.subject
GIRLS
dc.subject
GROSS ENROLLMENT
dc.subject
GROSS ENROLLMENT RATES
dc.subject
GROUP EDUCATION
dc.subject
HOMEWORK
dc.subject
LEAVING SCHOOL
dc.subject
LEVEL OF EDUCATION
dc.subject
LEVELS OF EDUCATION
dc.subject
LIFE EXPECTANCY
dc.subject
LITERACY
dc.subject
LIVING STANDARDS
dc.subject
MORTALITY
dc.subject
NER
dc.subject
NET ENROLLMENT
dc.subject
NUTRITION
dc.subject
PAPERS
dc.subject
PARENTS
dc.subject
PARTICIPATION RATES
dc.subject
PER CAPITA INCOME
dc.subject
POOR PERFORMANCE
dc.subject
PRIMARY EDUCATION
dc.subject
PRIMARY SCHOOL
dc.subject
PRIMARY SCHOOLS
dc.subject
PRIMARY STUDENTS
dc.subject
PRIVATE COSTS
dc.subject
PRIVATE EDUCATION
dc.subject
PRIVATE SECTOR
dc.subject
PUBLIC EXPENDITURE
dc.subject
PUBLIC FUNDING
dc.subject
PUBLIC PRIMARY
dc.subject
PUBLIC SCHOOLS
dc.subject
PUBLIC SECTOR
dc.subject
QUALITY EDUCATION
dc.subject
QUALITY OF EDUCATION
dc.subject
REPETITION
dc.subject
REPETITION RATE
dc.subject
REPETITION RATES
dc.subject
RURAL AREAS
dc.subject
RURAL CHILDREN
dc.subject
SCHOOL CONSTRUCTION
dc.subject
SCHOOL CURRICULUM
dc.subject
SCHOOL HOURS
dc.subject
SCHOOL SUPPLIES
dc.subject
SCHOOLING
dc.subject
SCHOOLS
dc.subject
SECONDARY EDUCATION
dc.subject
SECONDARY LEVEL
dc.subject
SECONDARY SCHOOLS
dc.subject
TEACHER
dc.subject
TEACHERS
dc.subject
TEACHING
dc.subject
TEACHING AIDS
dc.subject
TERTIARY EDUCATION
dc.subject
TEXT BOOKS
dc.subject
TEXTBOOKS
dc.subject
TUITION FEES
dc.subject
TUTORIALS
dc.subject
TUTORING
dc.subject
TUTORS
dc.subject
UNIVERSAL PRIMARY EDUCATION
dc.subject
UNIVERSITIES
dc.subject
UPPER PRIMARY
dc.subject
URBAN AREAS
dc.subject
VOCATIONAL TRAINING
dc.subject
WORK EXPERIENCE EDUCATION SECTOR
dc.subject
SCHOOL ENROLLMENT
dc.subject
SOCIAL INDICATORS
dc.subject
INFANT MORTALITY
dc.subject
CHILD MORTALITY
dc.subject
LIFE EXPECTANCY (HUMAN)
dc.subject
FERTILITY RATE
dc.subject
CHILD NUTRITION
dc.subject
ACCESSIBLE SERVICES
dc.subject
BASIC SERVICES
dc.subject
EDUCATIONAL FINANCING
dc.subject
INCOME GROUPS
dc.subject
GENDER DIFFERENCES
dc.subject
REGIONAL DISPARITY
dc.subject
ETHNIC GROUPS
dc.subject
SOCIOECONOMIC CONDITIONS
dc.subject
PUBLIC SPENDING
dc.subject
PRIMARY EDUCATION
dc.subject
ECONOMIC RATE OF CONVERGENCE
dc.subject
PRIVATE SECTOR
dc.subject
SECONDARY EDUCATION
dc.subject
HIGHER EDUCATION
dc.title
Trends in the Education Sector from 1993–98
en
okr.crosscuttingsolutionarea
Gender
okr.date.disclosure
2002-09
okr.doctype
Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
okr.doctype
Publications & Research
okr.docurl
http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/2002/09/2026462/trends-education-sector-1993-98
okr.globalpractice
Education
okr.globalpractice
Health, Nutrition, and Population
okr.googlescholar.linkpresent
yes
okr.identifier.doi
10.1596/1813-9450-2891
okr.identifier.externaldocumentum
000094946_02101104032680
okr.identifier.internaldocumentum
2026462
okr.identifier.report
WPS2891
okr.language.supported
en
okr.pdfurl
http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2002/10/25/000094946_02101104032680/Rendered/PDF/multi0page.pdf
en
okr.region.administrative
East Asia and Pacific
okr.region.country
Vietnam
okr.sector
Education :: General education sector
okr.topic
Health Monitoring and Evaluation
okr.topic
Education :: Primary Education
okr.topic
Curriculum and Instruction
okr.topic
Gender :: Gender and Education
okr.topic
Health, Nutrition and Population :: Public Health Promotion
okr.topic
Teaching and Learning
okr.unit
Off of Sr VP Dev Econ/Chief Econ (DECVP)
okr.volume
1

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