Employer Voices, Employer Demands, and Implications for Public Skills Development Policy

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collection.link.5
https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/9
collection.name.5
Policy Research Working Papers
dc.contributor.author
Cunningham, Wendy
dc.contributor.author
Villasenor, Paula
dc.date.accessioned
2014-05-15T16:08:20Z
dc.date.available
2014-05-15T16:08:20Z
dc.date.issued
2014-05
dc.description.abstract
Educators believe that they are adequately preparing youth for the labor market while employers lament the lack of skills. A possible source of the mismatch in perceptions is that employers and educators have different understandings of the types of skills valued in the labor market. This paper uses economics and psychology literature to define four skills sets: socio-emotional, higher-order cognitive, basic cognitive, and technical skills. The paper reviews the literature that quantitatively measures employer skill demand, as reported in preference surveys. A sample of 28 studies reveals remarkable consistency across the world in the skills demanded by employers. Although employers value all skill sets, there is a greater demand for socio-emotional and higher-order cognitive skills than for basic cognitive or technical skills. These results are robust across economy size and level of development, sector, export-orientation, and occupations. Employers perceive that the greatest skills gaps are in socio-emotional and technical skills. These findings suggest the need to re-conceptualize education and training systems. Taking into consideration the developmental process to acquire the skills identified by employers, this implies the need to recognize that (a) the job-skills development process necessarily begins at birth and continues throughout the life cycle so skills policy should, as well; (b) schools play a relevant, but limited, role in skills development and the role of parents, mentors, and the work place must be defined and enhanced; and (c) the skills most demanded by employers -- higher-order cognitive and socio-emotional skills -- are largely taught (the former) or refined in secondary school, which argues for a general education until these skills are formed.
en
dc.identifier
http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/2014/05/19457163/employer-voices-employer-demands-implications-public-skills-development-policy
dc.identifier.uri
http://hdl.handle.net/10986/18345
dc.language
English
dc.language.iso
en_US
dc.publisher
World Bank, Washington, DC
dc.relation.ispartofseries
Policy Research Working Paper;No. 6853
dc.rights
CC BY 3.0 IGO
dc.rights.uri
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/igo/
dc.subject
ABSTRACT THINKING
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ACADEMIC KNOWLEDGE
dc.subject
ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE
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ACHIEVEMENT TESTS
dc.subject
ADOLESCENCE
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ADULT LITERACY
dc.subject
ADULTS
dc.subject
ATTENTION
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BASIC LITERACY
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BASIC NUMERACY
dc.subject
BASIC SKILLS
dc.subject
BELIEFS
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CAREERS
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CBI
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CHILD DEVELOPMENT
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CLASSROOM
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COGNITION
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COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
dc.subject
COGNITIVE SKILLS
dc.subject
COGNITIVE TEST
dc.subject
COGNITIVE TESTS
dc.subject
COMMUNICATION SKILLS
dc.subject
COMPETENCE
dc.subject
COMPETENCIES
dc.subject
COMPUTER LITERACY
dc.subject
COMPUTER SKILLS
dc.subject
CONTROL GROUPS
dc.subject
COUNTRY STUDIES
dc.subject
CREATIVITY
dc.subject
CRITICAL THINKING
dc.subject
CURRICULUM
dc.subject
DECISION MAKING
dc.subject
DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY
dc.subject
DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN
dc.subject
EARLY CHILDHOOD
dc.subject
EARLY CHILDHOOD DEVELOPMENT
dc.subject
EARLY STIMULATION
dc.subject
EDUCATED WORKERS
dc.subject
EDUCATION DEVELOPMENT
dc.subject
EDUCATION LEVEL
dc.subject
EDUCATION POLICY
dc.subject
EDUCATION PROVIDERS
dc.subject
EDUCATION QUALITY
dc.subject
EDUCATION SECTOR
dc.subject
EDUCATIONAL ACHIEVEMENT
dc.subject
EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS
dc.subject
EDUCATORS
dc.subject
EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT
dc.subject
EMPATHY
dc.subject
ENTREPRENEURSHIP
dc.subject
ETHICS
dc.subject
GENDER
dc.subject
GENERAL EDUCATION
dc.subject
GIRLS
dc.subject
GRADE LEVELS
dc.subject
HIGH SCHOOL
dc.subject
HIGHER EDUCATION
dc.subject
HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS
dc.subject
HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
dc.subject
INFORMATION PROCESSING
dc.subject
INSTRUCTION
dc.subject
INTELLIGENCE
dc.subject
JOB TRAINING
dc.subject
LANGUAGE SKILLS
dc.subject
LEADERSHIP
dc.subject
LEARNING
dc.subject
LEARNING OPPORTUNITIES
dc.subject
LEARNING PROCESSES
dc.subject
LEVELS OF EDUCATION
dc.subject
LIFE SKILLS
dc.subject
LITERACY
dc.subject
LITERACY SURVEY
dc.subject
LOW LEVELS OF EDUCATION
dc.subject
LOWER LEVELS OF EDUCATION
dc.subject
MATHEMATICS
dc.subject
MEMORY
dc.subject
MENTORS
dc.subject
MOTIVATION
dc.subject
NUMERACY
dc.subject
NUTRITION
dc.subject
OCCUPATIONAL CHOICE
dc.subject
OCCUPATIONS
dc.subject
ORAL COMMUNICATION
dc.subject
PAPERS
dc.subject
PARENTAL GUIDANCE
dc.subject
PEDAGOGICAL METHODS
dc.subject
PEDAGOGY
dc.subject
PERCEPTION
dc.subject
PERSONALITY
dc.subject
PERSONALITY TRAITS
dc.subject
PHYSICS
dc.subject
PLAYING
dc.subject
PRIMARY SCHOOL
dc.subject
PROBLEM SOLVING
dc.subject
PROBLEM SOLVING SKILLS
dc.subject
PROBLEM-SOLVING SKILLS
dc.subject
PROFESSIONAL KNOWLEDGE
dc.subject
PROFICIENCY
dc.subject
RATES OF RETURN
dc.subject
READING
dc.subject
REASONING
dc.subject
RETURNS TO EDUCATION
dc.subject
SCHOOL CLUBS
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SCHOOL COMPLETION
dc.subject
SCHOOL CURRICULUM
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SCHOOL DROPOUTS
dc.subject
SCHOOL GRADUATES
dc.subject
SCHOOL PROGRAM
dc.subject
SCHOOLING
dc.subject
SCHOOLS
dc.subject
SECONDARY EDUCATION
dc.subject
SECONDARY SCHOOL
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SKILL ACQUISITION
dc.subject
SKILL DEVELOPMENT
dc.subject
SKILL PREFERENCES
dc.subject
SKILLED WORKERS
dc.subject
SKILLS ACQUISITION
dc.subject
SKILLS DEVELOPMENT
dc.subject
SKILLS FOR EMPLOYMENT
dc.subject
SOCIAL PROCESSES
dc.subject
SOCIAL SKILLS
dc.subject
SPORTS
dc.subject
STUDENT ASSESSMENT
dc.subject
TEACHING
dc.subject
TEACHING METHODS
dc.subject
TECHNICAL TRAINING
dc.subject
TERTIARY EDUCATION
dc.subject
TEST SCORES
dc.subject
TRAINING PROGRAMS
dc.subject
VOCATIONAL SCHOOL
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VOCATIONAL SKILLS
dc.subject
WORK EXPERIENCE
dc.subject
YOUNG CHILDREN
dc.subject
YOUTH
dc.title
Employer Voices, Employer Demands, and Implications for Public Skills Development Policy
en
okr.date.disclosure
2014-05-01
okr.doctype
Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
okr.doctype
Publications & Research
okr.docurl
http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/2014/05/19457163/employer-voices-employer-demands-implications-public-skills-development-policy
okr.globalpractice
Education
okr.googlescholar.linkpresent
yes
okr.identifier.doi
10.1596/1813-9450-6853
okr.identifier.externaldocumentum
000158349_20140505084823
okr.identifier.internaldocumentum
19457163
okr.identifier.report
WPS6853
okr.language.supported
en
okr.pdfurl
http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2014/05/05/000158349_20140505084823/Rendered/PDF/WPS6853.pdf
en
okr.topic
Access and Equity in Basic Education
okr.topic
Teaching and Learning
okr.topic
Education :: Educational Sciences
okr.topic
Education :: Primary Education
okr.topic
Education :: Education For All
okr.unit
Human Development Department, Latin America and the Caribbean Region
okr.volume
1 of 1

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