Economic Impacts of China's Accession to the World Trade Organization

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collection.link.5
https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/9
collection.name.5
Policy Research Working Papers
dc.contributor.author
Ianchovichina, Elena
dc.contributor.author
Martin, William
dc.date.accessioned
2014-05-09T18:36:41Z
dc.date.available
2014-05-09T18:36:41Z
dc.date.issued
2003-05
dc.date.lastModified
2021-04-23T14:03:41Z
dc.description.abstract
Ianchovichina and Martin present estimates of the impact of accession by China and Chinese Taipei to the World Trade Organization. China is estimated to be the biggest beneficiary, followed by Chinese Taipei and their major trading partners. Accession will boost the labor-intensive manufacturing sectors in China, especially the textiles and apparel sector that will benefit directly from the removal of quotas on textiles and apparel exports to North America and Western Europe. Consequently, developing economies competing with China in third markets may suffer relatively small losses. China has already benefited from the reforms undertaken between 1995 and 2001 (US$31 billion) and trade reforms after accession will lead to additional gains of around $US10 billion. Accession will have important distributional consequences for China, with wages of skilled workers and unskilled nonfarm workers rising in real terms and relative to farm incomes. Reduction in agricultural protection may hurt some farmers. Possible policy changes considered to offset these impacts include reductions in barriers to labor mobility and improvements in rural education. The authors estimate that the removal of the hukou system would raise farm wages and allow 28 million workers to migrate to nonfarm jobs. If, in addition, there is an increase in education spending that results in a percentage point increase in the annual skilled labor growth rate, approximately 32 million farm workers would leave their job for jobs in the nonfarm sectors. These policies would not only facilitate the evolution of China's economy toward high-technology manufacturing and services, they have the potential to much more than offset any negative impacts of accession on rural wages and rural incomes generally.
en
dc.identifier
http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/2003/05/2384816/economic-impacts-chinas-accession-world-trade-organization
dc.identifier.uri
http://hdl.handle.net/10986/18212
dc.language
English
dc.language.iso
en_US
dc.publisher
World Bank, Washington, DC
dc.relation.ispartofseries
Policy Research Working Paper;No. 3053
dc.rights
CC BY 3.0 IGO
dc.rights.uri
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/igo/
dc.subject
ACCESSION
dc.subject
ACCESSION AGREEMENT
dc.subject
ACCESSION AGREEMENTS
dc.subject
ACCESSION COMMITMENTS
dc.subject
ACCESSION PROCESS
dc.subject
ACCESSION TO THE WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION
dc.subject
ACCESSION TO WTO
dc.subject
ADVERSE IMPACTS
dc.subject
AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES
dc.subject
AGRICULTURAL EXPORT SUBSIDIES
dc.subject
AGRICULTURAL RETURNS
dc.subject
AGRICULTURAL SECTOR
dc.subject
AGRICULTURAL SECTORS
dc.subject
AGRICULTURE
dc.subject
APPAREL
dc.subject
APPAREL EXPORTS
dc.subject
APPAREL SECTOR
dc.subject
AUTOMOBILE SECTOR
dc.subject
AVERAGE TARIFF
dc.subject
AVERAGE TARIFF RATES
dc.subject
AVERAGE TARIFFS
dc.subject
BASE YEAR
dc.subject
BENCHMARK
dc.subject
BENCHMARK DATA
dc.subject
CAPACITY BUILDING
dc.subject
CAPITAL FLOWS
dc.subject
CAPITAL GOODS
dc.subject
CAPITAL PER WORKER
dc.subject
CUSTOMS
dc.subject
CUSTOMS UNION
dc.subject
DOMESTIC MARKET
dc.subject
DOMESTIC MARKETS
dc.subject
DOMESTIC PRODUCERS
dc.subject
DOMESTIC REGULATIONS
dc.subject
DUTY EXEMPTIONS
dc.subject
ECONOMIC GROWTH
dc.subject
ECONOMIC IMPACTS
dc.subject
ECONOMIC POLICY
dc.subject
ECONOMIES OF SCALE
dc.subject
ELASTICITIES
dc.subject
ELASTICITY
dc.subject
ELASTICITY OF TRANSFORMATION
dc.subject
EMPLOYMENT
dc.subject
EQUILIBRIUM
dc.subject
EXCHANGE RATE
dc.subject
EXCHANGE RATE REGIME
dc.subject
EXPORT PROCESSING
dc.subject
EXPORT PRODUCTION
dc.subject
EXPORT SECTOR
dc.subject
EXPORT SHARE
dc.subject
EXPORT SUBSIDIES
dc.subject
EXPORT SUBSIDY
dc.subject
EXPORT TAX
dc.subject
EXPORT-ORIENTED ACTIVITIES
dc.subject
EXPORTERS
dc.subject
FINISHED GOODS
dc.subject
FOREIGN ENTRY
dc.subject
FOREIGN EXCHANGE
dc.subject
FOREIGN FIRMS
dc.subject
FOREIGN INVESTMENT
dc.subject
FULL EMPLOYMENT
dc.subject
GDP
dc.subject
GENERAL EQUILIBRIUM MODEL
dc.subject
GROWTH RATE
dc.subject
GROWTH RATES
dc.subject
HARMONIZATION
dc.subject
HARMONIZATION PROGRAM
dc.subject
HUMAN CAPITAL
dc.subject
IMPORT PROTECTION
dc.subject
IMPORTED
dc.subject
IMPORTED INPUTS
dc.subject
IMPORTED INTERMEDIATE
dc.subject
IMPORTED INTERMEDIATES
dc.subject
IMPORTS
dc.subject
INCOME
dc.subject
INCOME TRANSFERS
dc.subject
INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE
dc.subject
INTERMEDIATE IMPORTS
dc.subject
INTERMEDIATE INPUTS
dc.subject
INTERMEDIATES
dc.subject
INTERNATIONAL CAPITAL
dc.subject
INVESTMENT LEVELS
dc.subject
LABOR MARKET
dc.subject
LABOR MARKET DISTORTIONS
dc.subject
LABOR MARKET POLICIES
dc.subject
LABOR MARKETS
dc.subject
LABOR MOBILITY
dc.subject
LABOR MOVEMENT
dc.subject
LABOR SUPPLY
dc.subject
LOCAL CONTENT
dc.subject
LOCAL MARKET
dc.subject
LOSS OF TARIFF REVENUE
dc.subject
MANUFACTURING SECTORS
dc.subject
MARKET DISTORTIONS
dc.subject
MARKET IMPERFECTIONS
dc.subject
MERCHANDISE TRADE
dc.subject
MERCHANDISE TRADE LIBERALIZATION
dc.subject
METALS
dc.subject
MULTILATERAL AGREEMENTS
dc.subject
NEGATIVE PROTECTION
dc.subject
NON-AGRICULTURAL EMPLOYMENT
dc.subject
NONTARIFF BARRIER
dc.subject
NONTARIFF BARRIERS
dc.subject
OIL
dc.subject
OPEN ECONOMY
dc.subject
POLICY CHANGES
dc.subject
POLICY INSTRUMENTS
dc.subject
POLICY REFORMS
dc.subject
POVERTY REDUCTION
dc.subject
PRICE CHANGES
dc.subject
PRODUCERS
dc.subject
PRODUCTION STRUCTURE
dc.subject
PRODUCTIVITY
dc.subject
PRODUCTIVITY GROWTH
dc.subject
PROTECTION DATA
dc.subject
PROTECTIVE IMPACT
dc.subject
PUBLIC SERVICES
dc.subject
QUANTITATIVE RESTRICTIONS
dc.subject
QUOTA RENTS
dc.subject
QUOTAS
dc.subject
RATES OF PROTECTION
dc.subject
REAL WAGES
dc.subject
REDUCING TARIFFS
dc.subject
REDUCTION IN TARIFFS
dc.subject
REFORM PROGRAM
dc.subject
ROUND AGREEMENT
dc.subject
RURAL AREAS
dc.subject
RURAL LABOR
dc.subject
RURAL SECTOR
dc.subject
RURAL WAGES
dc.subject
RURAL WORKERS
dc.subject
SAFEGUARD ACTIONS
dc.subject
SERVICE SECTORS
dc.subject
STATE TRADING
dc.subject
STRUCTURAL CHANGE
dc.subject
STRUCTURAL CHANGES
dc.subject
TARIFF BINDINGS
dc.subject
TARIFF DATA
dc.subject
TARIFF LEVELS
dc.subject
TARIFF LIBERALIZATION
dc.subject
TARIFF LINES
dc.subject
TARIFF RATES
dc.subject
TARIFF REDUCTIONS
dc.subject
TARIFF REFORM
dc.subject
TOTAL FACTOR PRODUCTIVITY
dc.subject
TOTAL FACTOR PRODUCTIVITY GROWTH
dc.subject
TRADE BALANCE
dc.subject
TRADE DATA
dc.subject
TRADE FLOWS
dc.subject
TRADE POLICIES
dc.subject
TRADE POLICY
dc.subject
TRADE REFORM
dc.subject
TRADE REFORMS
dc.subject
TRADE REGIME
dc.subject
TRADE VOLUMES
dc.subject
TRADING ARRANGEMENTS
dc.subject
TRADING PARTNERS
dc.subject
TRADING SYSTEM
dc.subject
TRANSITIONAL PRODUCT
dc.subject
TRANSPORT SERVICES
dc.subject
UNDERESTIMATES
dc.subject
UNSKILLED WORKERS
dc.subject
URBAN AREAS
dc.subject
URBAN EMPLOYMENT
dc.subject
URBAN WORKERS
dc.subject
URUGUAY ROUND
dc.subject
VALUE OF IMPORTS
dc.subject
WAGES
dc.subject
WHOLESALE PRICES
dc.subject
WORLD ECONOMY
dc.subject
WORLD PRICES
dc.subject
WORLD TRADE
dc.subject
WORLD TRADING SYSTEM
dc.subject
WTO
dc.subject
WTO ACCESSION ECONOMIC IMPACT
dc.subject
BENEFICIARY CAPACITY
dc.subject
TRADING
dc.subject
MANUFACTURING
dc.subject
TEXTILES
dc.subject
APPAREL
dc.subject
EXPORTS
dc.subject
SKILLED WORKERS
dc.subject
FARMERS
dc.subject
INCOME
dc.subject
RURAL EDUCATION
dc.subject
LABOR MOBILITY
dc.subject
RURAL AREAS
dc.subject
WTO ACCESSION
dc.subject
ECONOMIC IMPACT
dc.title
Economic Impacts of China's Accession to the World Trade Organization
en
okr.crosscuttingsolutionarea
Jobs
okr.doctype
Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
okr.doctype
Publications & Research
okr.docurl
http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/2003/05/2384816/economic-impacts-chinas-accession-world-trade-organization
okr.globalpractice
Social Protection and Labor
okr.globalpractice
Trade and Competitiveness
okr.googlescholar.linkpresent
yes
okr.identifier.doi
10.1596/1813-9450-3053
okr.identifier.externaldocumentum
000094946_03061804170193
okr.identifier.internaldocumentum
2384816
okr.identifier.report
WPS3053
okr.language.supported
en
okr.pdfurl
http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2003/06/30/000094946_03061804170193/Rendered/PDF/multi0page.pdf
en
okr.region.administrative
East Asia and Pacific
okr.region.country
China
okr.topic
International Economics and Trade :: World Trade Organization
okr.topic
International Economics and Trade :: Trade and Regional Integration
okr.topic
Social Protections and Labor :: Labor Policies
okr.topic
International Economics and Trade :: Trade Policy
okr.topic
Banks and Banking Reform
okr.topic
International Economics and Trade :: Free Trade
okr.topic
Economic Theory and Research
okr.topic
Environmental Economics and Policies
okr.unit
Economic Policy Division, Poverty Reduction and Economic Management Network
okr.volume
1

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