Journal Article

Low Schooling for Girls, Slower Growth for All? Cross-Country Evidence on the Effect of Gender Inequality in Education on Economic Development

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collection.link.102
https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/2211
collection.name.102
A. World Bank Economic Review
dc.contributor.author
Klasen, Stephan
dc.date.accessioned
2014-03-04T19:56:53Z
dc.date.available
2014-03-04T19:56:53Z
dc.date.issued
2002-09
dc.date.lastModified
2021-04-23T14:03:29Z
dc.description.abstract
Using cross-country and panel regressions, this article investigates how gender inequality in education affects long-term economic growth. Such inequality is found to have an effect on economic growth that is robust to changes in specifications and controls for potential endogeneities. The results suggest that gender inequality in education directly affects economic growth by lowering the average level of human capital. In addition, growth is indirectly affected through the impact of gender inequality on investment and population growth. Some 0.4-0.9 percentage points of differences in annual per capita growth rates between East Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia, and the Middle East can be accounted for by differences in gender gaps in education between these regions.
en
dc.identifier
http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/2002/09/17742167/low-schooling-girls-slower-growth-all-cross-country-evidence-effect-gender-inequality-education-economic-development
dc.identifier.citation
World Bank Economic Review
dc.identifier.uri
http://hdl.handle.net/10986/17209
dc.language
English
dc.language.iso
en_US
dc.publisher
Washington, DC: World Bank
dc.rights
CC BY-NC-ND 3.0 IGO
dc.rights.holder
World Bank
dc.rights.uri
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/igo
dc.subject
ACCESS TO RESOURCES
dc.subject
ADJUSTED INCOME
dc.subject
ADULT POPULATION
dc.subject
ANNUAL GROWTH
dc.subject
ANNUAL GROWTH RATE
dc.subject
AVERAGE GROWTH
dc.subject
AVERAGE LEVEL
dc.subject
BULLETIN
dc.subject
CAPITA INCOME GROWTH
dc.subject
CAPITAL ACCUMULATION
dc.subject
CAPITAL INCREASES
dc.subject
CAPITAL INFLOWS
dc.subject
CAPITAL INVESTMENTS
dc.subject
CHANGES IN FERTILITY
dc.subject
CHILD CARE
dc.subject
CHILD MORTALITY
dc.subject
CONVERGENCE DEBATE
dc.subject
CORRUPTION
dc.subject
COUNTRY DATA
dc.subject
COUNTRY REGRESSIONS
dc.subject
CROSS-COUNTRY ANALYSIS
dc.subject
DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION
dc.subject
DEPENDENCY BURDEN
dc.subject
DEPENDENT VARIABLE
dc.subject
DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS
dc.subject
DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
dc.subject
DEVELOPING REGIONS
dc.subject
DEVELOPMENT COUNTRIES
dc.subject
DEVELOPMENT GOALS
dc.subject
DEVELOPMENT PLANNING
dc.subject
DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES
dc.subject
DISCRIMINATION AGAINST WOMEN
dc.subject
DOMESTIC MARKETS
dc.subject
DOMESTIC SAVINGS
dc.subject
ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES
dc.subject
ECONOMIC ACTIVITY
dc.subject
ECONOMIC CHANGE
dc.subject
ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
dc.subject
ECONOMIC GROWTH
dc.subject
ECONOMIC HISTORY
dc.subject
ECONOMIC LITERATURE
dc.subject
ECONOMIC PERFORMANCE
dc.subject
ECONOMIC PROSPERITY
dc.subject
ECONOMICS
dc.subject
EDUCATED MEN
dc.subject
EDUCATED MOTHERS
dc.subject
EDUCATIONAL ACHIEVEMENT
dc.subject
EDUCATIONAL GENDER
dc.subject
EDUCATIONAL GENDER GAPS
dc.subject
EFFECT ON POPULATION GROWTH
dc.subject
EFFECTS OF GENDER
dc.subject
ELDERLY
dc.subject
EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE
dc.subject
EMPIRICAL GROWTH LITERATURE
dc.subject
EMPIRICAL STUDIES
dc.subject
EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES
dc.subject
ENDOGENOUS VARIABLES
dc.subject
EQUAL EDUCATION
dc.subject
EXOGENOUS VARIABLES
dc.subject
EXPLANATORY VARIABLES
dc.subject
EXTERNAL SHOCKS
dc.subject
FACTORS OF PRODUCTION
dc.subject
FAMILY PLANNING
dc.subject
FEMALE
dc.subject
FEMALE EDUCATION
dc.subject
FEMALE EMPLOYMENT
dc.subject
FEMALE LABOR
dc.subject
FEMALE WORK
dc.subject
FEMALE WORKERS
dc.subject
FEMALES
dc.subject
FEMINIST
dc.subject
FEMINIST ECONOMICS
dc.subject
FERTILITY
dc.subject
FERTILITY LEVELS
dc.subject
FERTILITY RATE
dc.subject
FERTILITY RATES
dc.subject
FERTILITY TRANSITION
dc.subject
FIRST YEAR
dc.subject
FIXED EFFECTS
dc.subject
FORMS OF DISCRIMINATION
dc.subject
GENDER BIAS
dc.subject
GENDER DIFFERENCES
dc.subject
GENDER DISCREPANCIES
dc.subject
GENDER EQUITY
dc.subject
GENDER GAP
dc.subject
GENDER GAP IN EDUCATION
dc.subject
GENDER GAPS
dc.subject
GENDER INEQUALITIES
dc.subject
GENDER INEQUALITY
dc.subject
GIRLS
dc.subject
GLOBAL ECONOMY
dc.subject
GROWTH EFFECT
dc.subject
GROWTH MODEL
dc.subject
GROWTH PERFORMANCE
dc.subject
GROWTH REGRESSION
dc.subject
GROWTH REGRESSIONS
dc.subject
GROWTH TRAGEDY
dc.subject
HEALTH OUTCOMES
dc.subject
HIGH GROWTH
dc.subject
HIGH POPULATION GROWTH
dc.subject
HOUSEHOLD LEVEL
dc.subject
HUMAN CAPITAL
dc.subject
HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
dc.subject
HUMAN DEVELOPMENT REPORT
dc.subject
HUMAN RESOURCES
dc.subject
IMPACT OF POPULATION
dc.subject
IMPACT OF POPULATION GROWTH
dc.subject
INCOME GROWTH
dc.subject
INCOME LEVELS
dc.subject
INCOME PER CAPITA
dc.subject
INCREASE GROWTH
dc.subject
INCREASING RETURNS
dc.subject
INDEPENDENT VARIABLES
dc.subject
INEQUALITY AVERSION
dc.subject
INTENSIVE INDUSTRIES
dc.subject
INVESTMENT RATE
dc.subject
INVESTMENTS IN EDUCATION
dc.subject
LABOR FORCE
dc.subject
LABOR FORCE GROWTH
dc.subject
LABOR MARKET
dc.subject
LABOUR OFFICE
dc.subject
LIFE EXPECTANCY
dc.subject
LITERACY
dc.subject
LONG-RUN GROWTH
dc.subject
LONG-TERM GROWTH
dc.subject
LOW-INCOME COUNTRIES
dc.subject
LOWER FERTILITY
dc.subject
MARGINAL RETURNS
dc.subject
MARGINALIZATION
dc.subject
MARRIAGE AGE
dc.subject
MONETARY ECONOMICS
dc.subject
MORTALITY
dc.subject
MORTALITY RATE
dc.subject
NATIONAL ACCOUNTS
dc.subject
NATURAL RESOURCE
dc.subject
NATURAL RESOURCES
dc.subject
NEGATIVE EFFECT
dc.subject
NEGATIVE IMPACT
dc.subject
0 HYPOTHESIS
dc.subject
NUMBER OF WORKERS
dc.subject
PANEL REGRESSIONS
dc.subject
PER CAPITA GROWTH
dc.subject
PER CAPITA INCOME
dc.subject
PER CAPITA INCOMES
dc.subject
POLICY RESEARCH
dc.subject
POLICY VARIABLES
dc.subject
POLITICAL ECONOMY
dc.subject
POLITICAL INSTABILITY
dc.subject
POPULATION AND DEVELOPMENT
dc.subject
POPULATION GROWTH
dc.subject
POPULATION GROWTH RATE
dc.subject
POPULATION GROWTH RATES
dc.subject
PRIMARY EDUCATION
dc.subject
PROBLEMS OF GENDER
dc.subject
PRODUCTION FUNCTION
dc.subject
PRODUCTIVITY
dc.subject
PROGRESS
dc.subject
PROMOTING GENDER EQUITY
dc.subject
PUBLIC POLICY
dc.subject
PUBLIC SERVICES
dc.subject
PUBLIC SPENDING
dc.subject
PURCHASING POWER
dc.subject
PURCHASING POWER PARITY
dc.subject
QUALITY OF EDUCATION
dc.subject
RAPID GROWTH
dc.subject
RATE OF GROWTH
dc.subject
RATE OF POPULATION GROWTH
dc.subject
REDUCED GENDER INEQUALITY
dc.subject
REDUCING GENDER INEQUALITY
dc.subject
RESOURCE ALLOCATION
dc.subject
SAFETY NETS
dc.subject
SECONDARY EDUCATION
dc.subject
SECONDARY SCHOOLING
dc.subject
SIGNIFICANT EFFECT
dc.subject
SIGNIFICANT IMPACT
dc.subject
SPILLOVER
dc.subject
STRUCTURAL ADJUSTMENT
dc.subject
STRUCTURAL ADJUSTMENT PROGRAMS
dc.subject
TERTIARY EDUCATION
dc.subject
UNDP
dc.subject
UNEDUCATED WOMEN
dc.subject
UNICEF
dc.subject
UNITED NATIONS
dc.subject
UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME
dc.subject
WAGE DIFFERENTIALS
dc.subject
WAGE DISCRIMINATION
dc.subject
WAGE GAP
dc.subject
WILL
dc.subject
WOMAN
dc.subject
WORKING-AGE POPULATION
dc.title
Low Schooling for Girls, Slower Growth for All? Cross-Country Evidence on the Effect of Gender Inequality in Education on Economic Development
en
dc.type
Journal Article
en
okr.crosscuttingsolutionarea
Gender
okr.date.disclosure
2013-05-22
okr.doctype
Publications & Research :: Journal Article
okr.doctype
Publications & Research
okr.docurl
http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/2002/09/17742167/low-schooling-girls-slower-growth-all-cross-country-evidence-effect-gender-inequality-education-economic-development
okr.globalpractice
Macroeconomics and Fiscal Management
okr.globalpractice
Poverty
okr.globalpractice
Governance
okr.globalpractice
Health, Nutrition, and Population
okr.googlescholar.linkpresent
yes
okr.identifier.doi
10.1093/wber/lhf004
okr.identifier.externaldocumentum
000333037_20130522122745
okr.identifier.internaldocumentum
17742167
okr.identifier.report
77396
okr.journal.nbpages
345-373
okr.language.supported
en
okr.pdfurl
http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2013/05/22/000333037_20130522122745/Rendered/PDF/773960JRN0200200Schooling0for0Girls.pdf
en
okr.peerreview
Academic Peer Review
okr.topic
Gender :: Gender and Development
okr.topic
Health, Nutrition and Population :: Population Policies
okr.topic
Gender :: Gender and Law
okr.topic
Macroeconomics and Economic Growth :: Economic Growth
okr.topic
Poverty Reduction :: Achieving Shared Growth
okr.unit
Social Protection Team (HDNSP)
okr.volume
16(3)

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