From the Bottom Up : How Small Power Producers and Mini-Grids Can Deliver Electrification and Renewable Energy in Africa

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collection.link.130
https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/5995
collection.link.336
https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/32464
collection.name.130
French PDFs Available
collection.name.336
Directions in Development
dc.contributor.author
Tenenbaum, Bernard
dc.contributor.author
Greacen, Chris
dc.contributor.author
Siyambalapitiya, Tilak
dc.contributor.author
Knuckles, James
dc.date.accessioned
2014-01-15T20:33:00Z
dc.date.available
2014-01-15T20:33:00Z
dc.date.issued
2014-01-15
dc.date.lastModified
2019-09-27T15:53:11Z
dc.description.abstract
Most Sub-Saharan African countries try to promote rural electrification through both centralized and decentralized approaches. This guide focuses on the decentralized approach, providing practical guidance on how small power producers and mini-grid operators can deliver both electrification and renewable energy in rural areas. It describes four basic types of on- and off-grid small power producers, as well as several hybrid combinations that are emerging in Africa and elsewhere. The guide highlights the ground-level regulatory and policy questions that must be answered by electricity regulators, rural energy agencies, and ministries to promote commercially sustainable investments by private operators and community organizations. Among the practical questions addressed is how to design and implement retail tariffs, quality of service standards, feed-in tariffs, and backup tariffs. The guide also analyzes the regulatory implementation issues triggered by donor grants and so-called top-up payments. It provides a primer for nonengineers on interconnection and operating standards for small power producers connected to main grids and isolated mini-grids. It analyzes whether the option of small power distributors, used widely in Asia, could be employed in Sub-Saharan Africa, and addresses two often ignored questions: what to do “when the big grid connects to the little grid” and how to practice light-handed regulation. Finally, the guide considers the threshold question of when to regulate and when to deregulate tariffs. All these implementation issues are presented with specific ground-level options and recommendations rather than just general pronouncements. In addition, to make the discussion more useful to practitioners, the guide provides numerous real-world examples of successful and unsuccessful regulatory and policy actions taken in Kenya, South Africa, and Tanzania, as well as Nepal, Sri Lanka, and Thailand. Many of the decisions are inherently controversial because they directly affect the economic interests of investors and consumers. The guide highlights rather than hides these real-world controversies by drawing upon candid comments of key stakeholders—national utility managers, mini-grid operators, government officials, and and consumers.
en
dc.identifier.isbn
978-1-4648-0093-1
dc.identifier.other
10.1596/978-1-4648-0093-1
dc.identifier.uri
http://hdl.handle.net/10986/16571
dc.language.iso
en_US
dc.publisher
Washington, DC: World Bank
dc.relation.ispartofseries
Directions in Development--Energy and Mining;
dc.rights
CC BY 3.0 IGO
dc.rights.holder
World Bank
dc.rights.uri
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/igo/
dc.subject
carbon credits
dc.subject
decentralized electrification
dc.subject
distributed generation
dc.subject
electricity regulation
dc.subject
electrification
dc.subject
feed-in tariffs
dc.subject
hybrid generators
dc.subject
mini-grids
dc.subject
off-grid
dc.subject
regulation
dc.subject
renewable energy
dc.subject
rural electrification
dc.subject
small distributors
dc.subject
small power producers
dc.title
From the Bottom Up : How Small Power Producers and Mini-Grids Can Deliver Electrification and Renewable Energy in Africa
en
okr.date.disclosure
2015-01-15
okr.doctype
Publications & Research :: Publication
okr.doctype
Publications & Research
okr.globalpractice
Energy and Extractives
okr.googlescholar.linkpresent
yes
okr.identifier.doi
10.1596/978-1-4648-0093-1
okr.identifier.report
84042
okr.language.supported
en
okr.language.supported
fr
okr.peerreview
Academic Peer Review
okr.region.geographical
Africa
okr.sector
Energy and mining :: Power
okr.sector
Energy and mining :: Renewable energy
okr.topic
Energy :: Electric Power
okr.topic
Energy :: Energy Privatization
okr.topic
Energy :: Renewable Energy
okr.topic
Private Sector Development :: Small and Medium Size Enterprises
okr.topic
Rural Development :: Rural and Renewable Energy
okr.unit
AFTEG2

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