Community-Based and Driven Development: A Critical Review

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dc.contributor.author
Mansuri, Ghazala
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dc.contributor.author
Rao, Vijayendra
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dc.date.accessioned
2013-07-01T17:24:30Z
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dc.date.available
2013-07-01T17:24:30Z
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dc.date.issued
2004-02
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dc.identifier.uri
http://hdl.handle.net/10986/14310
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dc.description.abstract
Community-based (and driven) development (CBD/CDD) projects have become an important form of development assistance, with the World Bank's portfolio alone approximating 7 billion dollars. The authors review the conceptual foundations of CBD/CDD initiatives. Given the importance of the topic, there are, unfortunately, a dearth of well-designed evaluations of such projects. But there is enough quantitative and qualitative evidence from studies that have either been published in peer-reviewed publications or have been conducted by independent researchers to glean some instructive lessons. The authors find that projects that rely on community participation have not been particularly effective at targeting the poor. There is some evidence that CBD/CDD projects create effective community infrastructure, but not a single study establishes a causal relationship between any outcome and participatory elements of a CBD project. Most CBD projects are dominated by elites and, in general, the targeting of poor communities as well as project quality tend to be markedly worse in more unequal communities. However, a number of studies find a U-shaped relationship between inequality and project outcomes. The authors also find that a distinction between potentially "benevolent" forms of elite domination and more pernicious types of "capture" is likely to be important for understanding project dynamics and outcomes. Several qualitative studies indicate that the sustainability of CBD initiatives depends crucially on an enabling institutional environment, which requires upward commitment. Equally, the literature indicates that community leaders need to be downwardly accountable to avoid a variant of "supply-driven demand-driven development." Qualitative evidence also suggests that external agents strongly influence project success. However, facilitators are often poorly trained and inexperienced, particularly when programs are rapidly scaled up. Overall, a naive application of complex contextual concepts like "participation," "social capital," and "empowerment" is endemic among project implementers and contributes to poor design and implementation. In sum, the evidence suggests that CBD/CDD is best done in a context-specific manner, with a long time-horizon, and with careful and well-designed monitoring and evaluation systems.
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dc.language
English
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dc.language.iso
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dc.publisher
World Bank, Washington, D.C.
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dc.relation.ispartofseries
Policy Research Working Paper;No.3209
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dc.rights
CC BY 3.0 Unported
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dc.rights.uri
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
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dc.subject
COMMUNITY BASED DEVELOPMENT
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COMMUNITY EMPOWERMENT
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COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION
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POOR COMMUNITIES
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COMMUNITY LEADERS
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SOCIAL CAPITAL
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POVERTY MITIGATION AID
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dc.subject
ANTIPOVERTY PROGRAM
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ANTIPOVERTY PROGRAMS
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BENEFICIARIES
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dc.subject
CAPACITY BUILDING
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CASE STUDIES
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CASE STUDY
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CENSUS DATA
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dc.subject
CLINICS
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dc.subject
COMMON PROPERTY RESOURCES
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dc.subject
COMMUNITIES
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dc.subject
COMMUNITY
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dc.subject
COMMUNITY CAPACITY
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dc.subject
COMMUNITY DEMAND
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dc.subject
COMMUNITY GROUPS
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COMMUNITY INFRASTRUCTURE
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dc.subject
COMMUNITY INVOLVEMENT
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dc.subject
COMMUNITY LEADERS
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COMMUNITY LEVEL
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COMMUNITY MEMBERS
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dc.subject
COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION
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dc.subject
COMMUNITY SUPPORT
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dc.subject
CORRUPTION
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dc.subject
DECISIONMAKING
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dc.subject
DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES
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dc.subject
DEVELOPMENT AGENCIES
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dc.subject
DEVELOPMENT ASSISTANCE
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dc.subject
DEVELOPMENT FUNDS
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dc.subject
DEVELOPMENT INSTITUTIONS
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dc.subject
DEVELOPMENT ISSUES
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DEVELOPMENT ORGANIZATIONS
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dc.subject
DEVELOPMENT POLICY
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dc.subject
DEVELOPMENT PRACTICE
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dc.subject
DEVELOPMENT PRACTITIONERS
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dc.subject
DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS
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dc.subject
DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS
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dc.subject
DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH
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dc.subject
ECONOMIC GROWTH
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dc.subject
ECONOMICS
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dc.subject
ECONOMISTS
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dc.subject
ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA
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dc.subject
EMPOWERMENT
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dc.subject
ENABLING ENVIRONMENT
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dc.subject
EXPENDITURES
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dc.subject
FACILITATORS
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dc.subject
FOOD POLICY RESEARCH
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dc.subject
GAPS
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GEOGRAPHIC SPREAD
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dc.subject
GEOGRAPHIC TARGETING
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dc.subject
GROUP DISCUSSIONS
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dc.subject
HUMAN CAPITAL
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dc.subject
IMPLEMENTATION AGENCIES
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dc.subject
INFORMATION PROBLEMS
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dc.subject
INSTITUTION BUILDING
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dc.subject
INSTITUTIONAL ENVIRONMENT
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dc.subject
INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT
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dc.subject
LOCAL GOVERNMENTS
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LOCAL INEQUALITY
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LOCAL INSTITUTIONS
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LOCAL LEVEL
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LOCAL MANAGEMENT
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LOCAL OFFICIALS
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MARGINALIZED GROUPS
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MATERIAL WELL-BEING
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dc.subject
MODERNIZATION
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MONITORING TOOLS
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dc.subject
NEIGHBORHOOD
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NEIGHBORHOODS
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dc.subject
NONGOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS
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NUTRITION
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PARTICIPANT OBSERVATION
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PARTICIPATORY APPROACHES
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PARTICIPATORY PLANNING
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PARTICIPATORY PLANNING EXERCISES
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PARTICIPATORY PROJECTS
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PARTICIPATORY STRATEGIES
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dc.subject
POLICY RESEARCH
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dc.subject
POLITICAL CONTEXT
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dc.subject
POOL RESOURCES
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POOR AREAS
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POOR COMMUNITIES
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POOR HOUSEHOLDS
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POOR PEOPLE
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POVERTY IMPACTS
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POVERTY REDUCTION
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POVERTY REDUCTION STRATEGY
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POVERTY TARGETING
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PRIMARY SCHOOL
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PRIORITIES
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PROGRAM IMPLEMENTATION
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PROJECT BENEFICIARIES
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PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION
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PROJECT MONITORING
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PUBLIC SECTOR
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PUBLIC SERVICES
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RESEARCH INSTITUTE
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RURAL AREAS
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RURAL POOR
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SELECTION BIAS
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SERVICE DELIVERY
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SOCIAL ASSISTANCE
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SOCIAL CAPITAL
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SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT
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SOCIAL FUNDS
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SOCIAL INVESTMENT FUNDS
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SOCIAL NETWORKS
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SOCIAL RELATIONSHIPS
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SOCIAL SCIENTISTS
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SUSTAINABILITY
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TARGETING PERFORMANCE
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dc.title
Community-Based and Driven Development: A Critical Review
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okr.identifier.externaldocumentum
000009486_20040601172905
en_US
okr.identifier.internaldocumentum
3889852
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okr.volume
1 of 1
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okr.topic
Public Sector Development :: Decentralization
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okr.topic
Social Development :: Community Development and Empowerment
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okr.topic
Health Economics and Finance
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okr.topic
Poverty Monitoring and Analysis
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okr.topic
Development Economics and Aid Effectiveness
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okr.topic
Poverty Reduction :: Poverty Assessment
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okr.identifier.report
WPS3209
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okr.identifier.doi
10.1596/1813-9450-3209
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okr.unit
Off of Sr VP Dev Econ/Chief Econ (DECVP)
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okr.doctype
Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
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okr.doctype
Publications & Research
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dc.rights.holder
World Bank
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okr.globalpractice
Social, Urban, Rural and Resilience
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okr.globalpractice
Governance
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okr.globalpractice
Poverty
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okr.globalpractice
Governance
en_US
okr.googlescholar.linkpresent
yes

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