Community-Based and Driven Development: A Critical Review

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collection.link.5
https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/9
collection.name.5
Policy Research Working Papers
dc.contributor.author
Mansuri, Ghazala
dc.contributor.author
Rao, Vijayendra
dc.date.accessioned
2013-07-01T17:24:30Z
dc.date.available
2013-07-01T17:24:30Z
dc.date.issued
2004-02
dc.description.abstract
Community-based (and driven) development (CBD/CDD) projects have become an important form of development assistance, with the World Bank's portfolio alone approximating 7 billion dollars. The authors review the conceptual foundations of CBD/CDD initiatives. Given the importance of the topic, there are, unfortunately, a dearth of well-designed evaluations of such projects. But there is enough quantitative and qualitative evidence from studies that have either been published in peer-reviewed publications or have been conducted by independent researchers to glean some instructive lessons. The authors find that projects that rely on community participation have not been particularly effective at targeting the poor. There is some evidence that CBD/CDD projects create effective community infrastructure, but not a single study establishes a causal relationship between any outcome and participatory elements of a CBD project. Most CBD projects are dominated by elites and, in general, the targeting of poor communities as well as project quality tend to be markedly worse in more unequal communities. However, a number of studies find a U-shaped relationship between inequality and project outcomes. The authors also find that a distinction between potentially "benevolent" forms of elite domination and more pernicious types of "capture" is likely to be important for understanding project dynamics and outcomes. Several qualitative studies indicate that the sustainability of CBD initiatives depends crucially on an enabling institutional environment, which requires upward commitment. Equally, the literature indicates that community leaders need to be downwardly accountable to avoid a variant of "supply-driven demand-driven development." Qualitative evidence also suggests that external agents strongly influence project success. However, facilitators are often poorly trained and inexperienced, particularly when programs are rapidly scaled up. Overall, a naive application of complex contextual concepts like "participation," "social capital," and "empowerment" is endemic among project implementers and contributes to poor design and implementation. In sum, the evidence suggests that CBD/CDD is best done in a context-specific manner, with a long time-horizon, and with careful and well-designed monitoring and evaluation systems.
en
dc.identifier.uri
http://hdl.handle.net/10986/14310
dc.language
English
dc.language.iso
en_US
dc.publisher
World Bank, Washington, D.C.
dc.relation.ispartofseries
Policy Research Working Paper;No.3209
dc.rights
CC BY 3.0 IGO
dc.rights.holder
World Bank
dc.rights.uri
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/igo/
dc.subject
COMMUNITY BASED DEVELOPMENT
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COMMUNITY EMPOWERMENT
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COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION
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POOR COMMUNITIES
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COMMUNITY LEADERS
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SOCIAL CAPITAL
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POVERTY MITIGATION AID
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ANTIPOVERTY PROGRAM
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ANTIPOVERTY PROGRAMS
dc.subject
BENEFICIARIES
dc.subject
CAPACITY BUILDING
dc.subject
CASE STUDIES
dc.subject
CASE STUDY
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CENSUS DATA
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CLINICS
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COMMON PROPERTY RESOURCES
dc.subject
COMMUNITIES
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COMMUNITY
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COMMUNITY CAPACITY
dc.subject
COMMUNITY DEMAND
dc.subject
COMMUNITY GROUPS
dc.subject
COMMUNITY INFRASTRUCTURE
dc.subject
COMMUNITY INVOLVEMENT
dc.subject
COMMUNITY LEADERS
dc.subject
COMMUNITY LEVEL
dc.subject
COMMUNITY MEMBERS
dc.subject
COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION
dc.subject
COMMUNITY SUPPORT
dc.subject
CORRUPTION
dc.subject
DECISIONMAKING
dc.subject
DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES
dc.subject
DEVELOPMENT AGENCIES
dc.subject
DEVELOPMENT ASSISTANCE
dc.subject
DEVELOPMENT FUNDS
dc.subject
DEVELOPMENT INSTITUTIONS
dc.subject
DEVELOPMENT ISSUES
dc.subject
DEVELOPMENT ORGANIZATIONS
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DEVELOPMENT POLICY
dc.subject
DEVELOPMENT PRACTICE
dc.subject
DEVELOPMENT PRACTITIONERS
dc.subject
DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS
dc.subject
DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS
dc.subject
DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH
dc.subject
ECONOMIC GROWTH
dc.subject
ECONOMICS
dc.subject
ECONOMISTS
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ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA
dc.subject
EMPOWERMENT
dc.subject
ENABLING ENVIRONMENT
dc.subject
EXPENDITURES
dc.subject
FACILITATORS
dc.subject
FOOD POLICY RESEARCH
dc.subject
GAPS
dc.subject
GEOGRAPHIC SPREAD
dc.subject
GEOGRAPHIC TARGETING
dc.subject
GROUP DISCUSSIONS
dc.subject
HUMAN CAPITAL
dc.subject
IMPLEMENTATION AGENCIES
dc.subject
INFORMATION PROBLEMS
dc.subject
INSTITUTION BUILDING
dc.subject
INSTITUTIONAL ENVIRONMENT
dc.subject
INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT
dc.subject
LOCAL GOVERNMENTS
dc.subject
LOCAL INEQUALITY
dc.subject
LOCAL INSTITUTIONS
dc.subject
LOCAL LEVEL
dc.subject
LOCAL MANAGEMENT
dc.subject
LOCAL OFFICIALS
dc.subject
MARGINALIZED GROUPS
dc.subject
MATERIAL WELL-BEING
dc.subject
MODERNIZATION
dc.subject
MONITORING TOOLS
dc.subject
NEIGHBORHOOD
dc.subject
NEIGHBORHOODS
dc.subject
NONGOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS
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NUTRITION
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PARTICIPANT OBSERVATION
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PARTICIPATORY APPROACHES
dc.subject
PARTICIPATORY PLANNING
dc.subject
PARTICIPATORY PLANNING EXERCISES
dc.subject
PARTICIPATORY PROJECTS
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PARTICIPATORY STRATEGIES
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POLICY RESEARCH
dc.subject
POLITICAL CONTEXT
dc.subject
POOL RESOURCES
dc.subject
POOR AREAS
dc.subject
POOR COMMUNITIES
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POOR HOUSEHOLDS
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POOR PEOPLE
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POVERTY IMPACTS
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POVERTY REDUCTION
dc.subject
POVERTY REDUCTION STRATEGY
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POVERTY TARGETING
dc.subject
PRIMARY SCHOOL
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PRIORITIES
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PROGRAM IMPLEMENTATION
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PROJECT BENEFICIARIES
dc.subject
PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION
dc.subject
PROJECT MONITORING
dc.subject
PUBLIC SECTOR
dc.subject
PUBLIC SERVICES
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RESEARCH INSTITUTE
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RURAL AREAS
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RURAL POOR
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SELECTION BIAS
dc.subject
SERVICE DELIVERY
dc.subject
SOCIAL ASSISTANCE
dc.subject
SOCIAL CAPITAL
dc.subject
SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT
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SOCIAL FUNDS
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SOCIAL INVESTMENT FUNDS
dc.subject
SOCIAL NETWORKS
dc.subject
SOCIAL RELATIONSHIPS
dc.subject
SOCIAL SCIENTISTS
dc.subject
SUSTAINABILITY
dc.subject
TARGETING PERFORMANCE
dc.title
Community-Based and Driven Development: A Critical Review
en
okr.doctype
Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
okr.doctype
Publications & Research
okr.docurl
http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/2004/02/3889852/community-based-driven-development-critical-review
okr.globalpractice
Social, Urban, Rural and Resilience
okr.globalpractice
Governance
okr.globalpractice
Poverty
okr.globalpractice
Governance
okr.googlescholar.linkpresent
yes
okr.identifier.doi
10.1596/1813-9450-3209
okr.identifier.externaldocumentum
000009486_20040601172905
okr.identifier.internaldocumentum
3889852
okr.identifier.report
WPS3209
okr.language.supported
en
okr.pdfurl
http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2004/06/01/000009486_20040601172905/Rendered/PDF/wps3209community.pdf
en
okr.topic
Public Sector Development :: Decentralization
okr.topic
Social Development :: Community Development and Empowerment
okr.topic
Health Economics and Finance
okr.topic
Poverty Monitoring and Analysis
okr.topic
Development Economics and Aid Effectiveness
okr.topic
Poverty Reduction :: Poverty Assessment
okr.unit
Off of Sr VP Dev Econ/Chief Econ (DECVP)
okr.volume
1 of 1

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