On the Take : Criminalizing Illicit Enrichment to Fight Corruption

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collection.link.64
https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/2172
collection.name.64
StAR Initiative (Stolen Asset Recovery)
dc.contributor.author
Muzila, Lindy
dc.contributor.author
Morales, Michelle
dc.contributor.author
Mathias, Marianne
dc.contributor.author
Berger, Tammar
dc.date.accessioned
2013-04-08T21:03:00Z
dc.date.available
2013-04-08T21:03:00Z
dc.date.issued
2012
dc.date.lastModified
2021-06-08T12:08:57Z
dc.description.abstract
Developing countries lose an estimated US$20–40 billion each year through bribery, misappropriation of funds, and other corrupt practices. Often, the most visible manifestation of corruption is the enrichment of a corrupt public official. Despite such visibility, prosecuting corruption can be very problematic, particularly when it requires proving the offer or acceptance of a bribe. Even when the corruption is established in a court of law, linking the proceeds of the crime to the offense in order to recover assets is a complex endeavor. In response, some countries looking to strengthen their overall arsenal against corruption have criminalized illicit enrichment. In its Article 20, the United Nations Convention against Corruption (UNCAC) recommends, but does not mandate, States Parties to adopt illicit enrichment as a criminal offense, defining the same as an intentional and “significant increase in the assets of a public official that he or she cannot reasonably explain in relation to his or her lawful income.” The illicit enrichment offense has spurred significant debates involving due processes of law. Others question how jurisdictions are actually using the offense. Finally, many jurisdictions that serve as financial centers do not recognize illicit enrichment as an offense, so tracing and recovering assets through mutual legal assistance is further complicated in illicit enrichment prosecutions. Against this background, this study provides policy makers, prosecutors, and other practitioners with a better understanding of the features of illicit enrichment. It draws on the preparatory work of international conventions, reviews of existing domestic provisions, and the jurisprudence on illicit enrichment. It is the StAR Initiative’s hope that the study will inform the work of decision makers considering adopting an illicit enrichment offense, and assist those implementing illicit enrichment to do so in a way that contributes to effective prosecution, confiscation, and asset recovery.
en
dc.identifier.issn
978-0-8213-9454-0
dc.identifier.uri
http://hdl.handle.net/10986/13090
dc.language.iso
en_US
dc.publisher
Washington, DC: World Bank
dc.rights
CC BY 3.0 IGO
dc.rights.holder
World Bank
dc.rights.uri
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/igo
dc.subject
Asset recovery
dc.subject
Corruption
dc.subject
Financial disclosure
dc.subject
Ill-gotten gains
dc.subject
Illicit Enrichment
dc.subject
Mutual legal assistance (MLA)
dc.subject
StAR
dc.subject
UNCAC
dc.subject
lifestyle checks
dc.title
On the Take : Criminalizing Illicit Enrichment to Fight Corruption
en
okr.date.disclosure
2012-08-08
okr.doctype
Publications & Research :: Publication
okr.globalpractice
Governance
okr.googlescholar.linkpresent
yes
okr.identifier.doi
10.1596/978-0-8213-9454-0
okr.identifier.report
71731
okr.language.supported
en
okr.language.supported
fr
okr.peerreview
Academic Peer Review
okr.sector
Finance
okr.statistics.combined
3677
okr.statistics.dr
958781468339641204
okr.topic
Governance
okr.topic
Law and Development
okr.topic
Public Sector Development
okr.unit
Stolen Asset Recovery Initiative (STR)

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