Publication: Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration : Somalia Militia

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Morse, Ted
Somalia has been plagued by instability for most of its 45-year history. After more than fourteen failed attempts at peace to build a new central government, the current (2002-2005) National Reconciliation and Peace Process, Somalia is still fractured. Multiple militias make the capital, Mogadishu and several key regional centers, insecure. However, there is great pressure to succeed at peace this time. Negotiations of differences continue and self-help is evident. The transition to a new central government is a fluctuating work in progress. Continued existence of an estimated 53,000 militia constrains state building and sets the requirement for (Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration) DDR. The usual application of the DDR concept does not fit Somalia's unique situation in regard to militias. Few will be totally disarmed and important types of militia probably will not be disbanded. Many militiamen do not need to be reintegrated into their home communities, as they are already by the very nature of the fighting, already a part of their home community. New concepts and terms for such a DDR plan are needed to tackle this issue. Some ideas are suggested in this status paper, but more work needs to be done. Also, new planning and concepts are needed for a national DDR program. This is especially true for the capital of Mogadishu, and a contingency plan for the city specifically is recommended.
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Morse, Ted. 2005. Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration : Somalia Militia. © World Bank, Nairobi. License: CC BY 3.0 IGO.
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