Publication: Assessing Student Learning in Africa
This paper reviews what has happened in the field of assessment since then. It deals with public examinations, but differs from the 1992 report in that, other than in regard to a few minor details, no new data were specifically collected for it. The paper revisits many of the issues that were raised in the earlier report, particularly in relation to the role that assessment can play in improving the quality of students' learning. It also differs from the earlier report in that its consideration of assessment is not limited to public examinations. The World Declaration on Education for All in Jomtien in 1990 not only gave fresh impetus to issues relating to assessment, but also necessitated the introduction of a new form of assessment-system assessment, or national assessment-to determine if children were acquiring the useful knowledge, reasoning ability, skills, and values that schools promised to deliver. National assessment is the second major area of assessment addressed in this paper. International assessments, which share many procedural features with national assessment, are also considered. The fourth type of assessment addressed in the paper is classroom assessment.
“Kellaghan, Thomas; Greaney, Vincent. 2004. Assessing Student Learning in Africa. © Washington, DC: World Bank. http://openknowledge.worldbank.org/entities/publication/fb12f4ea-0175-5f67-9e1c-99419775a7db License: CC BY 3.0 IGO.”
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PublicationGovernment Guarantees : Allocating and Valuing Risk in Privately Financed Infrastructure Projects(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2007)Government guarantees can help persuade private investors to finance valuable new infrastructure. But because their costs are hard to estimate and usually do not show up in the government's accounts, governments can be tempted to grant too many guarantees. Drawing on a diverse range of disciplines, including finance, history, economics, and psychology, Government Guarantees : Allocating and Valuing Risk in Privately Financed Infrastructure Projects aims to help governments give guarantees only when they are justified. It reviews the history of government guarantees and identifies the cognitive and political obstacles to good decisions about guarantees. It then develops a framework for judging when governments should bear risk in an infrastructure project (seeking to make precise the oft-invoked principle that risks should be allocated to those best placed to manage them); explains how guarantees can be valued; and discusses how aspects of public-sector management can be modified to improve the likely quality of government decisions about guarantees.
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