Publication: Children's and Youth Vulnerability : Poverty, Exclusion and Social Risk in Five Brazilian States

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Junho Pena, Maria Valeria
Rodrigues dos Santos, Maria Magdalena
This book seeks to contribute to knowledge in two areas that are key to poverty reduction and social development: education and youth vulnerability. Specifically, the book focuses on the relationship between poverty, ethnicity, gender, and educational exclusion in four Northeast states in Brazil: Maranhao, Paraiba, Pernambuco, and Rio Grande do Norte; and in the Southeast state of Rio de Janeiro. Brazil has vigorously sought to expand the coverage and quality of education, and has achieved rapid results over the past decade. Progress has been achieved on important indicators, and the quality of education is now undoubtedly better than it was in the past. But social background, either as insufficient family income or low parental schooling, persists as a determinant of children's lagging educational achievement. Rural, indigenous, and Quilombola (descendants of fugitive slaves) students have precarious access to education, with schools often not offering the last four years of the mandatory eight in the fundamental cycle. Dropout and repetition rates remain key areas of concern for policymakers. Thus this book includes what youth think about themselves, their schools, their families, and the vulnerability provoked by their gender, their ethnic background, and sometimes the depth of their poverty. This book demonstrates the efforts that Brazil should engage in to reach a pattern of development that is inclusive for all.
Junho Pena, Maria Valeria; Rodrigues dos Santos, Maria Magdalena. 2004. Children's and Youth Vulnerability : Poverty, Exclusion and Social Risk in Five Brazilian States. © Brasilia: World Bank. License: CC BY 3.0 IGO.
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