Publication: Sudan Debt Management Performance Assessment

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The Republic of Sudan is the third largest country in Africa, following the July 2011 secession of South Sudan, with an area of 1.8 million square kilometers and a population of 33.4 million, half of which live in urban areas. It is strategically located between Sub-Saharan Africa and the Middle East, with direct borders with Central African Republic, Chad, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Libya, and South Sudan. Sudan is a federal republic, and the vertical structure of government consists of three tiers. The central government is embodied in the office of the President, the Council of Ministers, and the National Assembly and the two main tiers at the sub-national levels are the state tier (with 17 states) and the locality tier. The implications of the country's current political and economic transition on debt management are fundamental. The permanent fiscal shock from lower oil revenues has put heavy pressure on the budget, with fewer resources available for debt repayment and with increased needs for borrowing for deficit financing, including monetization. External resources are limited given the arrears Sudan has with many creditors and associated lack of access to concessional financing, plus traditional global markets are stressed from fiscal problems in many countries. The government has already been very active in domestic markets, and the availability of additional resources from the private sector is a concern. The DeMPA focuses on central government debt management activities and closely-related functions, such as the issuance of loan guarantees, on-lending, cash flow forecasting, and cash balance management. Thus, the DeMPA does not assess the ability to manage the wider public debt portfolio, including implicit contingent liabilities (such as liabilities of the pension system) or the debt of state-owned enterprises (SOEs), if these are not guaranteed by the central government.
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World Bank. 2012. Sudan Debt Management Performance Assessment. © World Bank, Washington, DC. License: CC BY 3.0 IGO.
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