Publication: Empowerment and Poverty Reduction through Infrastructure and Service Provision in Rural Pakistan
Isa, Qazi Asmat
Poverty in Pakistan is overwhelmingly rural. Some two-thirds of Pakistan's population, and over 60 percent of the country's poor, live in rural areas. In 2005, average per capita expenditures in rural areas were 31 percent lower than in urban areas. This inequality between urban and rural areas is re-enforced by inequality within and between rural areas. Owing to uneven access to land and useable water, most of the increased income that results from agricultural production accrues to higher income farmers-who typically spend a disproportionate amount of their income on urban goods and services. This inequality seriously limits the impacts of agricultural growth on rural poverty, and is a major cause of sustained poverty and low productivity among small farmers and rural nonfarm households. It also points to the importance of effectively targeting the poor in contexts in which resources intended for them are likely to be captured by more privileged groups.
“Isa, Qazi Asmat; Ahmed, Naila; Larson, Gunnar. 2010. Empowerment and Poverty Reduction through Infrastructure and Service Provision in Rural Pakistan. Agricultural and Rural Development Notes; No. 52. © Washington, DC: World Bank. http://hdl.handle.net/10986/9463 License: CC BY 3.0 IGO.”