Gender Cross-Cutting Solutions Area, The World Bank
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Gender Cross-Cutting Solutions Area, The World Bank
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Last updated January 31, 2023
Julieth Santamaria is a research consultant at the Inter-American Development Bank , where she works on issues related to cost-benefit analyses of early childhood development programs. She holds an M.Sc. in Economics from Universidad del Rosario.
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Now showing 1 - 6 of 6
Publication(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-10) Admasu, Yeshwas ; Alkire, Sabina ; Ekhator-Mobayode, Uche Eseosa ; Kovesdi, Fanni ; Santamaria, Julieth ; Scharlin-Pettee, SophieDespite the many simultaneous deprivations faced by forcibly displaced communities, such as food insecurity, inadequate housing, or lack of access to education, there is little research on the level and composition of multidimensional poverty among them, and how it might differ from that of host communities. Relying on household survey data from selected areas of Ethiopia, Nigeria, Somalia, South Sudan, and Sudan, this paper proposes a Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) that captures the overlapping deprivations experienced by poor individuals in contexts of displacement. Using the MPI, the paper presents multi-country descriptive analysis to explore the relationships between multidimensional poverty, displacement status, and gender of the household head. The results reveal significant differences across displaced and host communities in all countries except Nigeria. In Ethiopia, South Sudan, and Sudan, female-headed households have higher MPIs, while in Somalia, those living in male-headed households are more likely to be identified as multidimensionally poor. Lastly, the paper examines mismatches and overlaps in the identification of the poor by the MPI and the $1.90/day poverty line, confirming the need for complementary measures when assessing deprivations among people in contexts of displacement.
Publication(Washington, DC: World Bank Group, 2014) Klugman, Jeni ; Hanmer, Lucia ; Twigg, Sarah ; Hasan, Tazeen ; McCleary-Sills, Jennifer ; Santamaria, JuliethThe 2012 World Development Report recognized that expanding women's agency - their ability to make decisions and take advantage of opportunities is key to improving their lives as well as the world. This report represents a major advance in global knowledge on this critical front. The vast data and thousands of surveys distilled in this report cast important light on the nature of constraints women and girls continue to face globally. This report identifies promising opportunities and entry points for lasting transformation, such as interventions that reach across sectors and include life-skills training, sexual and reproductive health education, conditional cash transfers, and mentoring. It finds that addressing what the World Health Organization has identified as an epidemic of violence against women means sharply scaling up engagement with men and boys. The report also underlines the vital role information and communication technologies can play in amplifying women's voices, expanding their economic and learning opportunities, and broadening their views and aspirations. The World Bank Group's twin goals of ending extreme poverty and boosting shared prosperity demand no less than the full and equal participation of women and men, girls and boys, around the world.
Publication(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-10) Hanmer, Lucia C. ; Rubiano-Matulevich, Eliana ; Santamaria, JuliethLittle is known about how gender inequality influences poverty rates of forcibly displaced people. This paper uses a nationally representative survey to analyze poverty among internally displaced people and non-displaced people in Somalia. More than half of internally displaced people’s households and 47 percent of non-displaced people’s households are female headed. Although poverty rates are higher among internally displaced people than non-displaced people (77 versus 66 percent), male-headed households are poorer than female-headed ones among both groups. Extending the analysis beyond headship to demographic characteristics and by the gender and number of earners provides a more nuanced picture. Demographic characteristics are strongly associated with poverty rates for internally displaced people but not for non-displaced people. Having more income earners reduces poverty risk for all households. For internally displaced people’s households, the largest decrease in poverty risk is associated with having more female earners, while having more male earners is associated with the lowest poverty for nondisplaced people’s households. The analysis highlights that poverty reduction policies and programs must cover all households and lift barriers to women’s economic opportunities. Programs that respond to women’s care responsibilities and address barriers to women’s economic opportunities are especially important for internally displaced people.
The Impact of Protracted Displacement on Syrian Refugees in Jordan: The Evolution of Household Composition and Poverty Rates(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2022-09) Santamaria, Julieth ; Hanmer, Lucia ; Rubiano, ElianaThis paper examines the influence of gender inequality on poverty among Syrian refugees in Jordan between 2013 and 2018. Two waves of Home-Visit surveys, collected by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, are analyzed to track the evolution of poverty among Syrian refugees in Jordan. To compare changes in poverty between female- and male-headed households, the paper uses relative comparisons of deciles in the expenditure distribution and quantile regressions. The analysis adjusts the poverty measure for economies of scale as the cost per person of maintaining a given standard of living may fall as household size rises. The findings show that the spending distribution has shifted over time, negatively affecting female-headed households. In 2013, female-headed households below the median had lower expenditure than male-headed households. In 2018, this pattern occurs in all deciles. The findings also show small differences between poverty rates of female- and male-headed households whether the poverty measure is adjusted for economies of scale or not. Regardless of the poverty measure, the poverty gender gap has increased over time, with female-headed households experiencing poverty more intensely. Female single caregivers remain at the most risk of falling into poverty when compared with other types of households and over time. This approach can help policy makers design more effective programs of assistance that respond to gender-based differences in vulnerability to poverty and find durable solutions for displaced populations.
How Does Poverty Differ Among Refugees? Taking a Gender Lens to the Data on Syrian Refugees in Jordan(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2018-10) Hanmer, Lucia ; Arango, Diana J. ; Rubiano, Eliana ; Santamaria, Julieth ; Viollaz, MarianaData collected for refugee registration and to target humanitarian assistance include information about household composition and demographics that can be used to identify gender-based vulnerabilities. This paper combines the microdata collected by United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees to register refugees with data from its Home Visit surveys to analyze income poverty rates among refugees with a gender lens. It finds distinguishing between different types of male and female principal applicant (PA) households is important in the setting of Syrian refugees in Jordan. Poverty rates for couples with children do not differ by gender of the PA but for other household types poverty rates are higher for those with female PAs. Households formed because of the unpredictable dynamics of forced displacement, such as sibling households, unaccompanied children, and single caregivers, are extremely vulnerable, especially if the principal applicant is a woman or a girl.
How Does Poverty Differ among Refugees? Taking a Gender Lens to the Data on Syrian Refugees in Jordan(Taylor and Francis, 2020-05-12) Hanmer, Lucia ; Rubiano, Eliana ; Santamaria, Julieth ; Arango, Diana J.Many reports document the hardships experienced by refugees, highlighting that women and children are a highly vulnerable group. However, empirical analysis of how gender inequality impacts poverty among refugees is limited. We combine registration data for Syrian refugees in Jordan collected by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees with data from its Home Visit surveys to analyze income poverty rates among refugee households. We use an approach that captures the disruption to household structures that results from displacement to evaluate the poverty impacts, comparing refugee households with male and female principal applicants (PAs). We find that distinguishing between different types of principal applicant households is important. Half of the female PAs for nonnuclear households live below the poverty line compared to only one-fifth of male PAs for nonnuclear household. PAs who are widows and widowers also face high poverty risks. Households that have formed because of the unpredictable dynamics of forced displacement, such as unaccompanied children and single caregivers, emerge as extremely vulnerable groups. We show that differences in household composition and individual attributes of male and female PAs are not the only factors driving increased poverty risk. Gender-specific barriers which prevent women accessing labor markets are also a factor. Our findings show that gender inequality amplifies the poverty experienced by a significant number of refugees. Our approach can be used to help policy-makers design more effective programs of assistance and find durable solutions for displaced populations.